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List of the largest cosmic structures
Structure name
(year discovered)
Maximum dimension
(in light-years)
Notes
Hercules–Corona Borealis Great Wall (2014)[1] 9,700,000,000–10,000,000,000[2][3][4] Discovered through gamma-ray burst mapping. Existence as a structure is disputed.[5][6][7]
Giant GRB Ring (2015)[8] 5,600,000,000[8] Discovered through gamma-ray burst mapping. Largest-known regular formation in the observable universe.[8]
Huge-LQG (2012-2013) 4,000,000,000[9][10][11] Decoupling of 73 quasars. Largest-known large quasar group and the first structure found to exceed 3 billion light-years.
The Giant Arc” (2021) 3,300,000,000[12] Located 9.2 billion light years away.
U1.11 LQG (2011) 2,500,000,000 Involves 38 quasars. Adjacent to the Clowes-Campusano LQG.
Clowes–Campusano LQG (1991) 2,000,000,000 Grouping of 34 quasars. Discovered by Roger Clowes and Luis Campusano.
Sloan Great Wall (2003) 1,380,000,000 Discovered through the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.
South Pole Wall (2020) 1,370,000,000[13][14][15][16][17][18] The largest contiguous feature in the local volume and comparable to the Sloan Great Wall (see above) at half the distance. It is located at the celestial South Pole.
(Theoretical limit) 1,200,000,000 Structures larger than this size are incompatible with the cosmological principle according to all estimates. However, whether the existence of these structures itself constitutes a refutation of the cosmological principle is still unclear.[19]
BOSS Great Wall (BGW) (2016) 1,000,000,000 Structure consisting of 4 superclusters of galaxies. The mass and volume exceeds the amount of the Sloan Great Wall.[20]
Perseus–Pegasus Filament (1985) 1,000,000,000 This galaxy filament contains the Perseus–Pisces Supercluster.
Pisces–Cetus Supercluster Complex (1987) 1,000,000,000 Contains the Milky Way, and is the first galaxy filament to be discovered. (The first LQG was found earlier in 1982.) A new report in 2014 confirms the Milky Way as a member of the Laniakea Supercluster.
Caelum Supercluster 910,000,000[citation needed] The Caelum Supercluster is a collection of over 550,000 galaxies. It is the largest of all galaxy superclusters.[citation needed]
CfA2 Great Wall (1989) 750,000,000 Also known as the Coma Wall.
Saraswati Supercluster 652,000,000[21] The Saraswati Supercluster consists of 43 massive galaxy clusters, which include Abell 2361 and ZWCl 2341.1+0000.
Boötes Supercluster 620,000,000
Horologium-Reticulum Supercluster (2005) 550,000,000 Also known as the Horologium Supercluster.
Laniakea Supercluster (2014) 520,000,000 Galaxy supercluster in which Earth is located.
Komberg–Kravtsov–Lukash LQG 11 500,000,000 Discovered by Boris V. Komberg, Andrey V. Kravstov and Vladimir N. Lukash.[22][23]
Hyperion proto-supercluster (2018) 489,000,000 The largest and earliest known proto– supercluster.
Komberg–Kravtsov–Lukash LQG 12 480,000,000 Discovered by Boris V. Komberg, Andrey V. Kravstov and Vladimir N. Lukash.[22][23]
Newman LQG (U1.54) 450,000,000
Komberg–Kravtsov–Lukash LQG 5 430,000,000 Discovered by Boris V. Komberg, Andrey V. Kravstov and Vladimir N. Lukash.[22][23]
Tesch–Engels LQG 420,000,000
Draco Supercluster 410,000,000[citation needed]
Great Attractor 400,000,000
Shapley Supercluster 400,000,000 First identified by Harlow Shapley as a cloud of galaxies in 1930, it was not identified as a structure until 1989.
Komberg–Kravstov–Lukash LQG 3 390,000,000 Discovered by Boris V. Komberg, Andrey V. Kravstov and Vladimir N. Lukash.[22][23]
U1.90 380,000,000
Lynx–Ursa Major Filament (LUM Filament) 370,000,000
Sculptor Wall 370,000,000 Also known as the Southern Great Wall.
Pisces-Cetus Supercluster 350,000,000
Komberg–Kravtsov–Lukash LQG 2 350,000,000 Discovered by Boris V. Komberg, Andrey V. Kravstov and Vladimir N. Lukash.[22][23]
z=2.38 filament around protocluster ClG J2143-4423 330,000,000
Webster LQG 320,000,000 First LQG (Large Quasar Group) discovered.[23][24]
Komberg–Kravtsov–Lukash LQG 8 310,000,000 Discovered by Boris V. Komberg, Andrey V. Kravstov and Vladimir N. Lukash.[22][23]
Komberg–Kravtsov–Lukash LQG 1 280,000,000 Discovered by Boris V. Komberg, Andrey V. Kravstov and Vladimir N. Lukash.[22][23]
Komberg–Kravtsov–Lukash LQG 6 260,000,000 Discovered by Boris V. Komberg, Andrey V. Kravstov and Vladimir N. Lukash.[22][23]
Komberg–Kravtsov–Lukash LQG 7 250,000,000 Discovered by Boris V. Komberg, Andrey V. Kravstov and Vladimir N. Lukash.[22][23]
SCL @ 1338+27 228,314,341 One of most distant known superclusters.
Komberg–Kravtsov–Lukash LQG 9 200,000,000 Discovered by Boris V. Komberg, Andrey V. Kravstov and Vladimir N. Lukash.[22][23]
SSA22 Protocluster 200,000,000 Giant collection of Lyman-alpha blobs.
Ursa Major Supercluster 200,000,000
Komberg-Kravtsov-Lukash LQG 10 180,000,000 Discovered by Boris V. Komberg, Andrey V. Kravstov and Vladimir N. Lukash.[22][23]
Ophiuchus Supercluster 170,000,000[citation needed]
Virgo Supercluster 110,000,000 A part of the Laniakea Supercluster (see above). It also contains the Milky Way Galaxy, which contains the Solar System where Earth orbits the Sun.
Reported for Reference.

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List of most massive black holes
Name Solar mass
(Sun = 1 × 100)
Notes
Phoenix A 1×1011[7] Estimated using a calorimetric model on the adiabatic behavior of core regrowth and an assumed core-Sérsic model of n=4. It is consistent with evolutionary modelling of gas accretion and the dynamics and density profiles of the galaxy.[7] Mass has not been measured directly.
TON 618 6.6×1010[8] Estimated from quasar Hβ emission line correlation.
4C +74.13 5.13+9.66
−3.35×1010
[9][10]
Produced a colossal AGN outburst after accreting 600 million M worth of material.Estimated using the break radius of 0.5 kpc core of the central galaxy.[9][10] Previous indirect assumptions about the efficiencies of gas accretion and jet power yield a lower limit of 1 billion M.[11][12][13]
The above masses are larger than what is predicted by current models of black hole growth, and are thus potentially unreliable
(Theoretical limit) 5×1010 This is the maximum mass of a black hole that models predict, at least for luminous accreting SMBH’s. At around 1010 M, both effects of intense radiation and star formation in the accretion disc slows down black hole growth. Given the age of the Universe and the composition of available matter, there is simply not enough time to grow black holes larger than this mass.[14][15][16][17] Reported for reference.
Holmberg 15A (4.0±0.8)×1010[18] Mass specified obtained through orbit-based, axisymmetric Schwarzschild models. Earlier estimates range from ~310 billion M down to 3 billion M, all relying on empirical scaling relations and are thus obtained from extrapolation and not from kinematical measurements.[19]
IC 1101 (4–10)×1010[20] Estimated from properties of the host galaxy (Faber–Jackson relation); mass has not been measured directly.
S5 0014+81 4×1010[21][22][23] A 2010 paper suggested that a funnel collimates the radiation around the jet axis, creating an optical illusion of very high brightness, and thus a possible overestimation of the black hole mass.[21]
SMSS J215728.21-360215.1 (3.4±0.6)×1010[24] Estimated using near-infrared spectroscopic measurements of the MgII emission line doublet.
SDSS J102325.31+514251.0 3.31+0.67
−0.56×1010
[25]
Estimated from quasar MgII emission line correlation.
H1821+643 3×1010[26] Value obtained as an indirect estimate using a model of minimum Eddington luminosity required to account for the Compton cooling of the surrounding cluster.[26]
NGC 6166 2.84+0.27
−0.18×1010
[27]
Central galaxy of Abell 2199; notable for its hundred thousand light year long relativistic jet.
2MASS J13260399+7023462 (2.7±0.4)×1010[28] Estimated using the full-width half maxima of the CIV emission line and monochromatic luminosity at 1350 Å wavelength.
APM 08279+5255 2.3×1010[29]
1.0+0.17
−0.13×1010
[30]
Based on velocity width of CO line from orbiting molecular gas,[29] and reverberation mapping using SiIV and CIV emission lines.[30]
NGC 4889 (2.1±1.6)×1010[31][32] Best fit: the estimate ranges from 6 billion to 37 billion M.[31][32]
SDSS J074521.78+734336.1 (1.95±0.05)×1010[25] Estimated from quasar MgII emission line correlation.
OJ 287 primary 1.8×1010[33] A smaller 100 million M black hole orbits this one in a 12-year period (see OJ 287 secondary below). But this measurement is in question[by whom?] due to the limited number and precision of observed companion orbits.
NGC 1600 (1.7±0.15)×1010[34][35] Unprecedentedly massive in relation of its location: an elliptical galaxy host in a sparse environment.
SDSS J08019.69+373047.3 (1.51±0.31)×1010[25] Estimated from quasar MgII emission line correlation.
SDSS J115954.33+201921.1 (1.41±0.10)×1010[25] Estimated from quasar MgII emission line correlation.
SDSS J075303.34+423130.8 (1.38±0.03)×1010[25] Estimated from quasar Hβ emission line correlation.
SDSS J080430.56+542041.1 (1.35±0.22)×1010[25] Estimated from quasar MgII emission line correlation.
Abell 1201 BCG (1.3±0.6)×1010[36] Estimated from the strong gravitational lensing of a background galaxy behind the BCG.[36] Beware of ambiguity between the BH mass determination and the galaxy cluster’s dark matter profile.[37]
SDSS J0100+2802 (1.24±0.19)×1010[38][39] Estimated from quasar MgII emission line correlation. This object grew early in cosmic history (redshift 6.30).
SDSS J081855.77+095848.0 (1.20±0.06)×1010[25] Estimated from quasar MgII emission line correlation.
NGC 1270 1.2×1010[40] Elliptical galaxy located in the Perseus Cluster. Also is a low-luminosity AGN (LLAGN).[41]
SDSS J082535.19+512706.3 (1.12±0.20)×1010[25] Estimated from quasar Hβ emission line
SDSS J013127.34-032100.1 (1.1±0.2)×1010[42] Estimated from accretion disk spectrum modelling.[42]
PSO J334.2028+01.4075 1×1010[43] There are actually two black holes, orbiting at each other in a close pair with a 542-day period. The largest one is quoted, while the smaller one’s mass is not defined.[43]
Black hole of central elliptical galaxy of RX J1532.9+3021 1×1010[44]
QSO B2126-158 1×1010[21]
NGC 1281 1×1010[45] Compact elliptical galaxy in the Perseus Cluster. Mass estimates range from 10 billion M down to <5 billion M.[46]
SDSS J015741.57-010629.6 (9.8±1.4)×109[25]
NGC 3842 9.7+3.0
−2.5×109
[31][32]
Brightest galaxy in the Leo Cluster
SDSS J230301.45-093930.7 (9.12±0.88)×109[25] Estimated from quasar MgII emission line correlation.
SDSS J140821.67+025733.2 8×109[47] Estimated from quasar MgII emission line correlation.
SDSS J075819.70+202300.9 (7.8±3.9)×109[25] Estimated from quasar Hβ emission line correlation.
CID-947 6.9+0.8
−1.2×109
[48]
Constitutes 10% of the total mass of its host galaxy. Estimated from quasar Hβ emission line correlation.
SDSS J080956.02+502000.9 (6.46±0.45)×109[25] Estimated from quasar Hβ emission line correlation.
SDSS J014214.75+002324.2 (6.31±1.16)×109[25] Estimated from quasar MgII emission line correlation.
Messier 87 7.22+0.34
−0.40×109
[49]
6.3×109[50]
Central galaxy of the Virgo Cluster; the first black hole directly imaged.
NGC 5419 7.2+2.7
−1.9×109
[51]
Estimated from the stellar velocity distribution. A secondary satellite SMBH may orbit around 70 parsecs.[51]
SDSS J025905.63+001121.9 (5.25±0.73)×109[25] Estimated from quasar Hβ emission line correlation.
SDSS J094202.04+042244.5 (5.13±0.71)×109[25] Estimated from quasar Hβ emission line correlation.
QSO B0746+254 5×109[21]
QSO B2149-306 5×109[21]
SDSS J090033.50+421547.0 (4.7±0.2)×109[25] Estimated from quasar MgII emission line correlation.
Messier 60 (4.5±1.0)×109[52]
SDSS J011521.20+152453.3 (4.1±2.4)×109[25] Estimated from quasar Hβ emission line correlation.
QSO B0222+185 4×109[21]
Hercules A (3C 348) 4×109 Notable for its million light-year long relativistic jet.
Abell 1836-BCG 3.61+0.41
−0.50×109
[53]
SDSS J213023.61+122252.0 (3.5±0.2)×109[25] Estimated from quasar Hβ emission line correlation.
SDSS J173352.23+540030.4 (3.4±0.4)×109[25] Estimated from quasar MgII emission line correlation.
SDSS J025021.76-075749.9 (3.1±0.6)×109[25] Estimated from quasar MgII emission line correlation.
NGC 1271 3.0+1.0
−1.1×109
[54]
Compact elliptical or lenticular galaxy in the Perseus Cluster.[55]
SDSS J030341.04-002321.9 (3.0±0.4)×109[25] Estimated from quasar MgII emission line correlation.
QSO B0836+710 3×109[21]
SDSS J224956.08+000218.0 (2.63±1.21)×109[25] Estimated from quasar Hβ emission line correlation.
SDSS J030449.85-000813.4 (2.4±0.50)×109[25] Estimated from quasar Hβ emission line correlation.
SDSS J234625.66-001600.4 (2.24±0.15)×109[25] Estimated from quasar Hβ emission line correlation.
PKS 2128-123 2.02×109[56]
ULAS J1120+0641 2×109[57][58]
QSO 0537-286 2×109[21]
NGC 3115 2×109[59]
Q0906+6930 2×109[60] Most distant blazar, at z = 5.47
QSO B0805+614 1.5×109[21]
Messier 84 1.5×109[61]
J100758.264+211529.207 (“Pōniuāʻena”) (1.5±0.2)×109[62] Second most-distant quasar known
PKS 2059+034 1.36×109[56]
Abell 3565-BCG 1.34+0.21
−0.19×109
[53]
NGC 7768 1.3+0.5
−0.4×109
[32]
NGC 1277 1.2×109[63] Once thought to harbor a black hole so large that it contradicted modern galaxy formation and evolutionary theories,[64] re-analysis of the data revised it downward to roughly a third of the original estimate.[65] and then one tenth.[63]
QSO B225155+2217 1×109[21]
QSO B1210+330 1×109[21]
Cygnus A 1×109[66] Brightest extrasolar radio source in the sky as seen at frequencies above 1 GHz
Sombrero Galaxy 1×109[67] Bolometrically most luminous galaxy in the local universe and also the nearest billion-solar-mass black hole to Earth.
Markarian 501 9×1083.4×109[68] Brightest object in the sky in very high energy gamma rays.
PG 1426+015 (1.298±0.385)×109[4]
467740000[5]
3C 273 (8.86±1.87)×108[4]
550000000[5]
Brightest quasar in the sky
ULAS J1342+0928 8×108[69] Most distant quasar[69] − currently on record as the most distant quasar at z=7.54[69]
Messier 49 5.6×108[70]
ESO 444-46 5.01×1087.76×1010[9][10] Brightest cluster galaxy of Abell 3558 in the center of the Shapley Supercluster; estimated using spheroidal luminosity profile of the host galaxy.
NGC 1399 5×108[71] Central galaxy of the Fornax Cluster
PG 0804+761 (6.93±0.83)×108[4]
190550000[5]
PG 1617+175 (5.94±1.38)×108[4]
275420000[5]
PG 1700+518 7.81+1.82
−1.65×108
[4]
60260000[5]
NGC 4261 4×108[72] Notable for its 88000 light-year long relativistic jet.[73]
PG 1307+085 (4.4±1.23)×108[4]
281 840 000[5]
SAGE0536AGN (3.5±0.8)×108[74][75] Constitutes 1.4% of the mass of its host galaxy
NGC 1275 3.4×108[76][77] Central galaxy of the Perseus Cluster
3C 390.3 (2.87±0.64)×108[4]
338840000[5]
II Zwicky 136 (4.57±0.55)×108[4]
144540000[5]
PG 0052+251 (3.69±0.76)×108[4]
218780000[5]
Messier 59 2.7×108[78] This black hole has a retrograde rotation.[79]
PG 1411+442 (4.43±1.46)×108[4]
79430000[5]
Markarian 876 (2.79±1.29)×108[4]
240000000[5]
Andromeda Galaxy 2.3×108 Nearest large galaxy to the Milky Way
PG 0953+414 (2.76±0.59)×108[4]
182000000[5]
PG 0026+129 (3.93±0.96)×108[4]
53700000[5]
Fairall 9 (2.55±0.56)×108[4]
79430000[5]
NGC 7727 1.54+0.18
−0.15×108
[80]
with 6.3×106 companion and the closest confirmed BBH to Earth at about 89 million light years away
Markarian 1095 (1.5±0.19)×108[4]
182000000[5]
Messier 105 1.4×1082×108[81]
Markarian 509 (1.43±0.12)×108[4]
57550000[5]
OJ 287 secondary 1×108[33] The smaller black hole orbiting OJ 287 primary (see above).
RX J124236.9-111935 1×108[82] Observed by the Chandra X-ray Observatory to be tidally disrupting a star.[82][83]
Messier 85 1×108[84]
NGC 5548 (6.71±0.26)×107[4]
123000000[5]
PG 1211+143 (1.46±0.44)×108[4]
40740000[5]
Messier 88 8×107[85]
Messier 81 (Bode’s Galaxy) 7×107[86]
Markarian 771 (7.32±3.52)×107[4]
7.586×107[5]
Messier 58 7×107[87]
PG 0844+349 (9.24±3.81)×107[4]
2.138×107[5]
Centaurus A 5.5×107[88] Also notable for its million light-year long relativistic jet.[89]
Markarian 79 (5.24±1.44)×107[4]
5.25×107[5]
Messier 96 48000000[90] Estimates can be as low as 1.5 million solar masses
Markarian 817 (4.94±0.77)×107[4]
4.365×107[5]
NGC 3227 (4.22±2.14)×107[4]
3.89×107[5]
NGC 4151 primary 4×107[91][92]
3C 120 5.55+3.14
−2.25×107
[4]
2.29×107[5]
Markarian 279 (3.49±0.92)×107[4]
4.17×107[5]
NGC 3516 (4.27±1.46)×107[4]
2.3×107[5]
NGC 863 (4.75±0.74)×107[4]
1.77×107[5]
Messier 82 (Cigar Galaxy) 3×107[93] Prototype starburst galaxy.[94]
Messier 108 2.4×107[95]
M60-UCD1 2×107[96] Constitutes 15% of the mass of its host galaxy.
NGC 3783 (2.98±0.54)×107[4]
9300000[5]
Markarian 110 (2.51±0.61)×107[4]
5620000[5]
Markarian 335 (1.42±0.37)×107[4]
6310000[5]
NGC 4151 secondary 10000000[92]
NGC 7469 (12.2±1.4)×106[4]
6460000[5]
IC 4329 A 9.90+17.88
−11.88×106
[4]
5010000[5]
NGC 4593 5.36+9.37
−6.95×106
[4]
8130000[5]
Messier 61 5×106[97]
Messier 32 1.5×1065×106[98] A dwarf satellite galaxy of the Andromeda Galaxy.
Sagittarius A* 4.3×106[99] The black hole at the center of the Milky Way.

**********************

Galaxies with diameters 500 kly or greater
Galaxy name/designation Major axis diameter (in light-years) Minor axis diameter (in light years) Comoving distance
(in millions of light-years)
Apparent visible magnitude Morphology Estimation
method
Link for object
ESO 383-76 (ESO 383-G 076)[a] 1,764,000 882,100 654.9 13.01 cD5; E5; BrClG 90% total B-light NED
ESO 409-25 (ESO 409-G 025)[a] 1,454,000 901,700 885.5 13.9 cD4; E4; BrClG 90% total B-light NED
ESO 151-41 (ESO 151-G 041) 1,132,000 453,000 1,131 15.61 Sc 90% total B-light NED
MCG-04-02-013[a] 1,115,000 1,115,000 770.4 16 E 27.0 B-mag arcsec−2 NED
ESO 306-17 (ESO 306-G 017) 1,070,000 706,100 517.3 13.33 cD3; E3 90% total B-light NED
ESO 350-15 (ESO 350-G 015) 1,043,000 521,600 712.3 14.2 cD3; E3 90% total B-light NED
Abell 1146 BCG 1,009,000 767,100 2,045 15.7 E 2MASS K-band total mag NED
Abell 747 BCG 995,300 437,900 3,712 18.2 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
ESO 473-5 (ESO 473-G 005) 944,600 632,900 921.7 14.57 Sc; BrClG 90% total B-light NED
LEDA 1654342 916,400 623,100 3,921 18.3 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
Abell 384 BCG 913,900 274,200 3,354 19.31 ~[b] 2MASS K-band total mag NED
Abell 697 BCG[a] 885,200 637,400 4,076 18.7 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
Abell 963 BCG 841,200 605,700 2,976 17.5 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
ESO 541-13 (ESO 541-G 013) 840,700 655,700 811.2 13.8 cD; E3 pec 90% total B-light NED
Abell 1602 BCG 822,000 575,400 2,859 17.4 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
NGC 623 803,900 611,000 426.3 13.88 cD; E 27.0 B-mag arcsec−2 NED
ESO 197-1 NED03 (ESO 197-G 001 NED03) 803,800 401,900 802.7 15.71 E 27.0 B-mag arcsec−2 NED
Abell 1413 BCG[a] 801,400 256,400 2,081 17.82 cD; E; BrClG 25.0 r-mag arcsec−2 NED
ESO 291-9 (ESO 291-G 009) 795,100 461,200 812.5 14.64 cD4; SA0;BrClG 90% total B-light NED
LEDA 1816387 782,500 336,500 4,304 18.7 ~[b] 2MASS K-band total mag NED
Abell 812 BCG[a] 772,900 541,000 2,763 17.6 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
7C 1043+5953 771,000 400,900 3,299 18.1 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
LEDA 2463193 769,500 769,500 5,023 19.6 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
Abell 781 b 766,500 337,300 4,327 19.0 BrClG 25.0 r-mag arcsec−2 NED
Abell 655 BCG 760,000 577,600 1,864 16.0 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
Abell 908 BCG 750,200 555,100 3,541 18.0 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
ESO 198-1 (ESO 198-G 001) 741,600 563,600 921.4 14.36 cD4; E4 27.0 B-mag arcsec−2 NED
3C 295 738,000 738,000 5,926 19.8 E/S0;LEG;BrClG NLRG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
Abell 267 BCG 736,700 302,000 3,297 17.8 BrClG 25.0 r-mag arcsec−2 NED
Abell 360 BCG 727,700 363,900 3,160 17.65 cD 2MASS K-band total mag NED
ESO 251-21 (ESO 251-G 021) 727,700 458,400 480.1 13.9 SAB0- pec; E/S0 90% total B-light NED
NGC 6872 717,000 143,400 246.6 12.69 SAB(rs)c 25.5 r-mag arcsec−2 NED
B3 1715+425 715,200 472,000 2,653 16.4 BrClG; AGN[c] 2MASS K-band total mag NED
ESO 552-20 (ESO 552-G 020)[a] 710,000 411,800 447.5 13.32 cD; E 90% total B-light NED
ESO 11-4 (ESO 011-G 004) 707,400 488,100 839.5 15.38 cD4; E4 pec 90% total B-light NED
IC 1633[a] 705,700 543,400 349.3 12.48 cD; E1 27.0 B-mag arcsec−2 NED
LEDA 2262657 704,000 521,000 3,832 17.8 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
NGC 1759 702,800 632,500 778.5 14.08 cD; E 27.0 B-mag arcsec−2 NED
Abell 242 BCG 699,900 287,000 3,259 17.94 cD; db 2MASS K-band total mag NED
2MASS J14342214-0232472 676,600 399,200 4,216 18.9 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
ESO 444-46 (ESO 444-G 046)[a] 670,700 382,300 654.9 15.23 cD4; E4; BrClG 27.0 B-mag arcsec−2 NED
Abell 227 BCG 667,400 493,900 2,526 17.11 cD 2MASS K-band total mag NED
ESO 351-21 (ESO 351-G 021) 664,600 584,900 816.7 15.21 SA0- 90% total B-light NED
NGC 1668 660,100 435,700 483.0 13.73 SA0; D/cD 90% total B-light NED
Abell 980 BCG 658,500 342,400 2,294 17.5 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
2MASX J06583806-5557256 658,300 408,200 4,008 20.32 ~[b] 2MASS K-band total mag NED
ESO 253-27 (ESO 253-G 027)[a] 658,200 447,600 745.9 14.88 cD3; E3 90% total B-light NED
Abell 38 BCG 658,200 368,600 2,017 16.87 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
LEDA 1127620 657,400 552,200 3,626 18.2 ~[b] 2MASS K-band total mag NED
MACS J0257.6-2209 BCG 656,200 446,200 4,089 19.49 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
LEDA 1694905 656,100 472,400 3,426 18.0 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
LEDA 1769306 655,800 524,700 4,201 18.8 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
ESO 488-27 (ESO 488-G 027)[a] 654,300 536,500 569.1 13.99 cD; E1 27.0 B-mag arcsec−2 NED
Abell 635 BCG 652,900 470,100 1,344 11.1(K) cD 2MASS K-band total mag NED
Abell 209 BCG 652,500 365,400 3,011 18.29 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
Abell 690 BCG[a] 647,800 492,300 1,145 15.3 cD; BrClG; WLRG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
IC 5353[a] 647,600 524,600 394.3 14.05 cD; S0 26.0 B-mag arcsec−2 NED
LEDA 2637071 643,000 347,200 2,690 17.1 ~[b] 2MASS K-band total mag NED
ESO 488-15 (ESO 488-G 015)[a] 642,900 501,500 606.3 14.72 E 90% total B-light NED
ESO 349-10 (ESO 349-G 010) 642,200 398,200 703.2 13.0 cD4; E4; BrClG 90% total B-light NED
Abell 1835 BCG[d][a] 637,100 471,500 3,660 17.6 cD; BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
Abell 1277 BCG 636,800 471,200 3,559 18.6 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
LEDA 1933247 634,600 342,700 3,023 17.5 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
Abell 122 BCG 633,800 557,800 1,614 15.42 cD; E 2MASS K-band total mag NED
UGC 2438[a] 633,100 367,200 1,013 16.5 cD 2MASS K-band total mag NED
LEDA 2628046 632,800 379,700 3,967 18.2 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
OGC 79 623,700 324,300 2,840 17.6 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
LEDA 2197890 619,900 520,700 3,347 16.5 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
Abell 907 BCG 618,700 457,800 2,350 16.9 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
Abell 523-178 618,100 445,000 1,477 11.1 ~[b] 2MASS K-band total mag NED
LEDA 1183804 616,500 468,600 3,522 18.1 ~[b] 2MASS K-band total mag NED
ESO 539-11 (ESO 539-G 011) 613,300 361,800 753.4 14.9 S0 90% total B-light NED
Abell 123 BCG 610,400 415,100 1,358 15.40 D/cD 2MASS K-band total mag NED
ESO 33-3 (ESO 033-G 003) 607,800 370,800 378.7 13.7 E4 90% total B-light NED
Abell 1068 BCG 607,400 243,000 2,008 16.4 cD; Sy2 25.0 r-mag arcsec−2 NED
ESO 307-13 (ESO 307-G 013) 607,400 406,900 672.9 13.5 cD3; E3; BrClG 90% total B-light NED
Abell 586 BCG[a] 606,700 351,900 2,075 15.4 E; BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
ESO 482-21 (ESO 482-G 021) 604,400 344,500 786.7 15.24 S0 90% total B-light NED
Abell 1047 G1[a] 602,600 518,300 2,256 17.1 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
ESO 86-62 (ESO 086-G 062) 602,300 373,400 536.2 13.55 cD4; E4 90% total B-light NED
WISEA J005939.38-181807.5 602,100 457,600 1,300 16.01 SB(s)a pec 2MASS K-band total mag NED
WISEA J085404.52+290312.7[a] 601,600 433,200 1,224 15.8 S0; BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
Abell 315-5200[a] 600,800 324,400 2,499 18.1 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
Abell 140 BCG 600,400 408,200 2,289 17.94 cD 2MASS K-band total mag NED
Abell 3880 BCG 597,800 143,500 837.2 14.0 cD3; E3; BrClG 25.0 B-mag arcsec−2 NED
Abell 370 BCG[a] 595,700 595,700 5,437 18.85 E; BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
2MASX J03032123+0155344 595,600 345,500 2,190 19.3 cD 2MASS K-band total mag NED
Abell 971 BCG 595,400 404,900 1,331 15.7 cD; BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
ESO 488-13 (ESO 488-G 013)[a] 595,300 375,000 652.0 15.1 SA(r)0+ 27.0 B-mag arcsec−2 NED
LEDA 1369756 592,500 391,100 3,348 18.0 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
Abell 1132 BCG[a] 592,500 509,500 1,959 16.8 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
IC 5358[a] 592,000 272,300 413.6 13.58 cD4; E4 pec 27.0 B-mag arcsec−2 NED
Abell 1045 BCG[a] 590,900 307,200 1,995 16.7 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
Abell 705 BCG 590,200 507,600 1,520 16.4 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
Abell 1027B BCG 590,000 413,000 1,985 18.1 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
Abell 2187 BCG[a] 589,400 405,000 2,555 17.2 BrClG 25.0 r-mag arcsec-2 NED
Abell S78 BCG 589,000 524,200 715.6 14.96 S0 90% total B-light NED
Abell 359 BCG 575,900 299,500 3,453 17.36 cD 2MASS K-band total mag NED
ESO 146-28 (ESO 146-G 028) 574,800 396,600 601.1 13.9 cD3; E3 27.0 B-mag arcsec−2 NED
ESO 161-8 (ESO 161-G 008) 574,000 287,000 705.2 13.8 cD5; E5; BrClG 90% total B-light NED
OGC 58 565,700 294,200 3,825 18.0 BrClG 25.0 r-mag arcsec-2 NED
LEDA 139714 561,500 185,300 2,396 17.6 BrClG 25.0 r-mag arcsec-2 NED
ESO 306-4 (ESO 306-G 004) 560,300 280,100 454.7 14.71 cD4; E4 pec 90% total B-light NED
Abell 521 BCG 560,100 291,300 3,566 16.1 Early-type[e] 2MASS K-band total mag NED
Tadpole Galaxy 558,400 111,700 468.4 14.6 SB(s)c pec 25.0 B-mag arcsec-2 NED
Abell 1246 G1 557,900 234,300 2,727 18.3 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
Abell 223B BCG 556,500 556,500 3,021 18.33 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
ESO 424-1 (ESO 424-G 001) 551,500 402,600 852.9 15.20 cD4; E4 pec 90% total B-light NED
2MASX J09420304+0857189 550,500 192,700 2,973 20.4 ~[f] 2MASS K-band total mag NED
Abell 394 BCG 548,100 350,800 2,952 17.29 cD 2MASS K-band total mag NED
Abell 279A BCG[a] 547,600 427,200 1,123 15.6 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
WISEA J222418.56-551451.7 546,500 393,500 1,142 15.83 cD3; E3 2MASS K-band total mag NED
Abell S968A BCG 545,300 196,300 781.5 15.48 cD5; E5 pec 25.0 B-mag arcsec−2 NED
LEDA 1483121[a] 545,200 327,100 2,377 17 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
ESO 349-1 (ESO 349-G 001) 544,900 403,200 823.5 14.52 cD1; E1 27.0 B-mag arcsec−2 NED
Abell 2261 BCG[a] 544,600 533,800 3,237 19.2 cD; E 2MASS K-band total mag NED
ESO 118-6 (ESO 118-IG 006)[a] 544,400 310,300 700.6 15.23 cD4; E4 26.0 B-mag arcsec−2 NED
NGC 77 543,400 527,100 900.8 15.67 SA0- 90% total B-light NED
Abell 329 BCG 542,400 314,600 1,998 16.56 cD 2MASS K-band total mag NED
Abell 750 G1 541,300 281,500 2,371 17.3 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
NGC 7012 541,100 330,100 434.1 13.65 cD4; E4 pec 90% total B-light NED
Abell 415 BCG 540,600 508,200 1,121 16.64 S0 2MASS K-band total mag NED
Abell 773 D2[a] 540,300 398,600 3,249 18.4 cD; BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
B2 1003+26[a] 539,800 431,900 1,697 16.5 E; BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
LEDA 2155337 539,700 367,000 3,626 18.1 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
Abell 983-4822[a] 539,600 453,300 2,876 17.6 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
LEDA 1860126 536,300 504,100 3,081 16.0 E; BrClG 25.0 r-mag arcsec-2 NED
LEDA 2623325 531,200 302,800 2,502 16.9 ~[b] 2MASS K-band total mag NED
Abell 1232 BCG[a] 527,500 411,400 2,439 17.2 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
Abell 1382 BCG[a] 525,000 346,500 1,523 13.01(K)[g] BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
Abell 1165 BCG 524,000 324,900 2,730 17.5 cD 2MASS K-band total mag NED
LEDA 1166681 520,900 328,200 3,907 18.4 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
OGC 81 520,000 265,200 3,942 18.9 BrClG 25.0 r-mag arcsec-2 NED
Abell 208A BCG[a] 519,600 426,100 1,128 15.7 E; BrClG, AGN 2MASS K-band total mag NED
Abell 715 BCG 515,400 484,400 2,068 16.9 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
LEDA 1013135 509,300 325,900 3,108 17.8 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
UGC 9589 505,800 126,500 1,402 16.5 SB Intermed. surface brightness NED
LEDA 1374261 505,200 262,700 3,392 18.0 BrClG 25.0 r-mag arcsec-2 NED
Abell 1351 BCG 502,400 445,000 4,656 18.8 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
Abell 667 BCG 502,400 341,600 2,094 17.1 BrClG 2MASS K-band total mag NED

Listed below are some notable galaxies under 500,000 light-years in diameter, for the purpose of comparison. All links to NED are available, except for the Milky Way, which is linked to the relevant paper detailing its size.

Notable galaxies with diameters 500kly or less
Galaxy name/designation Major axis diameter (in light-years) Minor axis diameter (in light years) Comoving distance
(in millions of light-years)
Apparent visible magnitude Morphology Estimation
method
Link for object
Hercules A 459,800 285,100 2,258 17.7 E; WLRG; NLRG 2MASS K-band total mag NED
UGC 2885 (Rubin’s Galaxy)[a] 438,100 201,500 274.0 13.5 SA(rs)c 25.0 B-mag arcsec−2 NED
NGC 1399[a] 412,300 379,300 64.91 10.6 cD; E1 pec 90% total B-light NED
NeVe 1 332,100 239,100 438.7 8.94(K)[h] cD; E 2MASS K-band total mag NED
Alcyoneus (galaxy) 242,900[i] 155,400 3,561 19.6 E 25.0 r-mag arcsec−2 NED
IC 1101[a] 164,200 133,500 342.8 14.73 cD; S0- 2MASS K-band total mag NED
Andromeda Galaxy 152,300 152,300 2.446 0.17 SA(s)b 25.0 mag/arcsec2 NED
Messier 87[a] 118,800[j] 93,870 48.92 9.59 cD; E0-E1 pec; NLRG; Sy 25.0 B-mag arcsec−2 NED
Malin 1 118,700[k] 118,700 1,218 17.6(g) S; LSB 2MASS K-band total mag NED
NGC 262[a] 101,100 78,860 213.3 13.2(r) SA(s)0/a; Sy2 2MASS K-band total mag NED
Milky Way 87,400 ± 3,590 87,400 ± 3,590 ~[l] -5.0 Sb; Sbc; SB(rs)bc 25.0 B-mag arcsec-2 [22][23]

*****************

List of the largest nebulae
Nebula Maximum dimension
(in light-years/parsecs)
Type Notes
LAB Giant Concentration[verification needed]
(coinciding with SSA22 Protocluster)
200,000,000 ly (61,000,000 pc)[1] Complex of LαBs Also on record as one of the largest structures in the universe.
NGC 262 Halo Cloud 1,300,000 ly (400,000 pc)[2] H I region Spiral nebula surrounding NGC 262, which is one of the largest known galaxies.
Leo Ring 650,000 ly (200,000 pc)[3] HVC
Magellanic Stream 600,000 ly (180,000 pc)[4] complex of HVCs Connects the Large and Small Magellanic clouds; extends across 180° of the sky.
Lyman-alpha blob 1 300,000 ly (92,000 pc)[5] LαB Largest blob in the LAB Giant Concentration[citation needed]
Himiko Gas Cloud 55,000 ly (17,000 pc)[6] Intergalactic cloud
(possible LαB)
One of the most massive lyman-alpha blobs known
HVC 127-41-330 20,000 ly (6,100 pc)[7] HVC
Smith’s Cloud 9,800 ly (3,000 pc)[8] HVC Extends about 20° of the sky
Tarantula Nebula 1,895 ly (581 pc)[9][a] H II region Most active starburst region in the Local Group
NGC 604 1,520 ly (470 pc)[10][11][b] H II region Located in the Triangulum Galaxy
N44 1,000 ly (310 pc)[12] Emission nebula
N11 1,000 ly (310 pc)[13] H II region
NGC 2404 940 ly (290 pc) H II region Largest H II region located in spiral galaxy NGC 2403
NGC 595 880 ly (270 pc)[14] H II region
NGC 6822 838 ly (257 pc) H II region
Gum Nebula 809–950 ly (248–291 pc)[15][16] Emission nebula
Bubble Nebula (NGC 6822) 758 ly (232 pc)[17][18][19] H II region
NGC 6188 600 ly (180 pc) Emission nebula
NGC 592 590 ly (180 pc)[20][21] H II region
N119 570 ly (170 pc)[22] H II region Peculiar S-shape
Sh2-310 531–681 ly (163–209 pc)[23][c] H II region Nebula surrounding VY Canis Majoris, which is one of largest known stars.
Carina Nebula 460 ly (140 pc)[24] H II region Nearest giant H II region to Earth
Dragonfish Nebula 450 ly (140 pc)[25] Emission nebula
RCW 49 350 ly (110 pc)[26] H II region
Heart Nebula 330 ly (100 pc) H II region
Westerhout 5 (Soul Nebula) 330 ly (100 pc) H II region
Henize 70 (N70 or DEM L301)[27] 300 ly (92 pc)[28] H II region The N 70 Nebula, in the Large Magellanic Cloud has a shell structure and is really a bubble in space. It is a “Super Bubble”.
Barnard’s Loop 300 ly (92 pc)[29][30] H II region
Sh2-54 252 ly (77 pc)[31][32] H II region
Prawn Nebula 250 ly (77 pc)[33] H II region
NGC 7822 150 ly (46 pc)[34] Emission nebula
IC 2944 142 ly (44 pc)[35][36] Emission nebula
Eagle Nebula 140 ly (43 pc)[37] H II region Part of another diffuse nebula IC 4703.
Rosette Nebula 130 ly (40 pc) H II region
Lagoon Nebula 110 ly (34 pc) H II region
NGC 3576 100 ly (31 pc) Emission nebula
Veil Nebula 100 ly (31 pc) Supernova remnant

By angular diameter

Celestial object Angular diameter or size Relative size
Magellanic Stream over 100°
Gum Nebula 36° 1,000 ly
Milky Way 30° (by 360°) 105,700 ly
Serpens-Aquila Rift 20° by 10° 575 ly or more
Canis Major Overdensity 12° by 12°
Smith’s Cloud 11°
Large Magellanic Cloud 10.75° by 9.17° Brightest galaxy in the night sky, 0.9 apparent magnitude (V)
Barnard’s loop 10°
Zeta Ophiuchi Sh2-27 nebula 10°
Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy 7.5° by 3.6°
Coalsack nebula 7° by 5°
Rho Ophiuchi cloud complex 4.5° by 6.5°
Hyades 5°30′ Brightest star cluster in the night sky, 0.5 apparent magnitude (V)
Small Magellanic Cloud 5°20′ by 3°5′
Andromeda Galaxy 3°10′ by 1° About six times the size of the Sun or the Moon. Only the much smaller core is visible without long-exposure photography.
Veil Nebula
Heart Nebula 2.5° by 2.5°
Westerhout 5 2.3° by 1.25°
Sh2-54 2.3°
Carina Nebula 2° by 2° Brightest nebula in the night sky, 1.0 apparent magnitude (V)
North America Nebula 2° by 100′
Orion Nebula 1°5′ by 1°
Sun 31′27″ – 32′32″ 30–31 times the maximum value for Venus (orange bar below) / 1887–1952″
Moon 29′20″ – 34′6″ 28–32.5 times the maximum value for Venus (orange bar below) / 1760–2046″
Helix Nebula About 16′ by 28′
Spire in Eagle Nebula 4′40″ Length is 280″

********************

List of the largest cosmic structures
Structure name
(year discovered)
Maximum dimension
(in light-years)
Notes
Hercules–Corona Borealis Great Wall (2014)[1] 9,700,000,000–10,000,000,000[2][3][4] Discovered through gamma-ray burst mapping. Existence as a structure is disputed.[5][6][7]
Giant GRB Ring (2015)[8] 5,600,000,000[8] Discovered through gamma-ray burst mapping. Largest-known regular formation in the observable universe.[8]
Huge-LQG (2012-2013) 4,000,000,000[9][10][11] Decoupling of 73 quasars. Largest-known large quasar group and the first structure found to exceed 3 billion light-years.
The Giant Arc” (2021) 3,300,000,000[12] Located 9.2 billion light years away.
U1.11 LQG (2011) 2,500,000,000 Involves 38 quasars. Adjacent to the Clowes-Campusano LQG.
Clowes–Campusano LQG (1991) 2,000,000,000 Grouping of 34 quasars. Discovered by Roger Clowes and Luis Campusano.
Sloan Great Wall (2003) 1,380,000,000 Discovered through the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.
South Pole Wall (2020) 1,370,000,000[13][14][15][16][17][18] The largest contiguous feature in the local volume and comparable to the Sloan Great Wall (see above) at half the distance. It is located at the celestial South Pole.
(Theoretical limit) 1,200,000,000 Structures larger than this size are incompatible with the cosmological principle according to all estimates. However, whether the existence of these structures itself constitutes a refutation of the cosmological principle is still unclear.[19]
BOSS Great Wall (BGW) (2016) 1,000,000,000 Structure consisting of 4 superclusters of galaxies. The mass and volume exceeds the amount of the Sloan Great Wall.[20]
Perseus–Pegasus Filament (1985) 1,000,000,000 This galaxy filament contains the Perseus–Pisces Supercluster.
Pisces–Cetus Supercluster Complex (1987) 1,000,000,000 Contains the Milky Way, and is the first galaxy filament to be discovered. (The first LQG was found earlier in 1982.) A new report in 2014 confirms the Milky Way as a member of the Laniakea Supercluster.
Caelum Supercluster 910,000,000[citation needed] The Caelum Supercluster is a collection of over 550,000 galaxies. It is the largest of all galaxy superclusters.[citation needed]
CfA2 Great Wall (1989) 750,000,000 Also known as the Coma Wall.
Saraswati Supercluster 652,000,000[21] The Saraswati Supercluster consists of 43 massive galaxy clusters, which include Abell 2361 and ZWCl 2341.1+0000.
Boötes Supercluster 620,000,000
Horologium-Reticulum Supercluster (2005) 550,000,000 Also known as the Horologium Supercluster.
Laniakea Supercluster (2014) 520,000,000 Galaxy supercluster in which Earth is located.
Komberg–Kravtsov–Lukash LQG 11 500,000,000 Discovered by Boris V. Komberg, Andrey V. Kravstov and Vladimir N. Lukash.[22][23]
Hyperion proto-supercluster (2018) 489,000,000 The largest and earliest known proto– supercluster.
Komberg–Kravtsov–Lukash LQG 12 480,000,000 Discovered by Boris V. Komberg, Andrey V. Kravstov and Vladimir N. Lukash.[22][23]
Newman LQG (U1.54) 450,000,000
Komberg–Kravtsov–Lukash LQG 5 430,000,000 Discovered by Boris V. Komberg, Andrey V. Kravstov and Vladimir N. Lukash.[22][23]
Tesch–Engels LQG 420,000,000
Draco Supercluster 410,000,000[citation needed]
Great Attractor 400,000,000
Shapley Supercluster 400,000,000 First identified by Harlow Shapley as a cloud of galaxies in 1930, it was not identified as a structure until 1989.
Komberg–Kravstov–Lukash LQG 3 390,000,000 Discovered by Boris V. Komberg, Andrey V. Kravstov and Vladimir N. Lukash.[22][23]
U1.90 380,000,000
Lynx–Ursa Major Filament (LUM Filament) 370,000,000
Sculptor Wall 370,000,000 Also known as the Southern Great Wall.
Pisces-Cetus Supercluster 350,000,000
Komberg–Kravtsov–Lukash LQG 2 350,000,000 Discovered by Boris V. Komberg, Andrey V. Kravstov and Vladimir N. Lukash.[22][23]
z=2.38 filament around protocluster ClG J2143-4423 330,000,000
Webster LQG 320,000,000 First LQG (Large Quasar Group) discovered.[23][24]
Komberg–Kravtsov–Lukash LQG 8 310,000,000 Discovered by Boris V. Komberg, Andrey V. Kravstov and Vladimir N. Lukash.[22][23]
Komberg–Kravtsov–Lukash LQG 1 280,000,000 Discovered by Boris V. Komberg, Andrey V. Kravstov and Vladimir N. Lukash.[22][23]
Komberg–Kravtsov–Lukash LQG 6 260,000,000 Discovered by Boris V. Komberg, Andrey V. Kravstov and Vladimir N. Lukash.[22][23]
Komberg–Kravtsov–Lukash LQG 7 250,000,000 Discovered by Boris V. Komberg, Andrey V. Kravstov and Vladimir N. Lukash.[22][23]
SCL @ 1338+27 228,314,341 One of most distant known superclusters.
Komberg–Kravtsov–Lukash LQG 9 200,000,000 Discovered by Boris V. Komberg, Andrey V. Kravstov and Vladimir N. Lukash.[22][23]
SSA22 Protocluster 200,000,000 Giant collection of Lyman-alpha blobs.
Ursa Major Supercluster 200,000,000
Komberg-Kravtsov-Lukash LQG 10 180,000,000 Discovered by Boris V. Komberg, Andrey V. Kravstov and Vladimir N. Lukash.[22][23]
Ophiuchus Supercluster 170,000,000[citation needed]
Virgo Supercluster 110,000,000 A part of the Laniakea Supercluster (see above). It also contains the Milky Way Galaxy, which contains the Solar System where Earth orbits the Sun.
Reported for Reference.

*****************

Stars with 60 M or greater
Star name Mass
(M, Sun = 1)
Approx. distance
from earth (ly)
Apparent
visible magnitude
Effective
temperature (K)
Estimation
method
Link Reference
Westerhout 49-2 (in Westerhout 49) 250 36,200 18.246 (J band) 35,500 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [5][6]
BAT99-98 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 226 165,000 13.37 45,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [7][8]
R136a1 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 196 163,000 12.23 46,000 Evolution SIMBAD [9][10]
Melnick 42 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 189 163,000 12.78 47,300 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [11][8]
VFTS 1022 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 178 164,000 13.47 42,200 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [11][8]
Westerhout 51-57 (in Westerhout 51) 160 20,000 16.66 (J band) 42,700 Evolution [12]
R136a3 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 155 163,000 12.97 50,000 Evolution SIMBAD [9][10]
VFTS 682 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 153 164,000 16.08 52,200 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [13][8]
HD 15558 A (in IC 1805 of Heart Nebula) 152 24,400 7.87 (combined) 39,500 Binary SIMBAD [14][15]
R136a2 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 151 163,000 12.34 50,000 Evolution SIMBAD [9][10]
Westerhout 51-3 (in Westerhout 51) 148 20,000 17.79 (J band) 39,800 Evolution SIMBAD [12]
Melnick 34 A (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 147 163,000 13.09 (combined) 53,000 Binary SIMBAD [16][8]
VFTS 482 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 145 164,000 12.95 42,200 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [11][8]
R136c (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 142 163,000 13.43 51,000 Evolution SIMBAD [17][8]
VFTS 1021 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 141 164,000 13.35 39,800 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [11][8]
LH 10-3209 A (in NGC 1763 of LMC) 140 160,000 11.859 (combined) 42,500 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [18][19][e]
VFTS 506 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 138 164,000 13.31 47,300 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [13][8]
Melnick 34 B (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 136 163,000 13.09 (combined) 53,000 Binary SIMBAD [16][8]
Westerhout 51d (in Westerhout 51) 135 20,000 15.11 (J band) 42,700 Evolution [12]
VFTS 545 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 133 164,000 13.32 47,300 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [11][8]
HD 97950 B (WR 43b in HD 97950 of NGC 3603) 132 24,800 11.33 42,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [20][21]
HD 269810 (in NGC 2029 of LMC) 130 163,000 12.22 52,500 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [22][23]
Westerhout 49-1 (in Westerhout 49) 130 36,200 15.531 (J band) 44,700 Evolution SIMBAD [5][6]
R136a7 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 127 163,000 13.97 54,000 Evolution SIMBAD [24][8]
WR 42e (in HD 97950 of NGC 3603) 123 25,000 14.53 43,000 Ejection SIMBAD [25][f]
HD 97950 A1a (WR 43a A in HD 97950 of NGC 3603) 120 24,800 11.18 (combined) 42,000 Binary SIMBAD [20][21]
LSS 4067 (in HM 1) 120 11,000 11.44 40,000 Evolution SIMBAD [26][27]
WR 93 (in Pismis 24 of NGC 6357) 120 5,900 10.68 71,000 Evolution SIMBAD [26][15]
Sk -69° 212 (in NGC 2044 of LMC) 119 160,000 12.416 45,400 Evolution SIMBAD [28][19]
Sk -69° 249 A (in NGC 2074 of LMC) 119 160,000 12.02 (combined) 38,900 Evolution SIMBAD [28][29]
ST5-31 (in NGC 2074 of LMC) 119 160,000 12.273 50,700 Evolution SIMBAD [28][30]
R136a5 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 116 157,000 13.71 48,000 Evolution SIMBAD [24][8]
MSP 183 (in Westerlund 2) 115 20,000 13.878 46,300 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [31][32]
WR 24 (in Collinder 228 of Carina Nebula) 114 14,000 6.48 50,100 Evolution SIMBAD [33][34]
HD 97950 C1 (WR 43c A in HD 97950 of NGC 3603) 113 24,800 11.89 (combined) 44,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [20][21][e]
Arches-F9 (WR 102ae in Arches Cluster) 111.3 25,000 16.1 (J band) 36,600 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [35][36]
Cygnus OB2 #12 A (in Cygnus OB2) 110 5,200 11.702 (combined) 13,700 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [37][38][e]
HD 93129 Aa (in Trumpler 14 of Carina Nebula) 110 7,500 6.9 (combined) 42,500 Trinary SIMBAD [39][15]
HSH95-36 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 110 163,000 14.41 49,500 Evolution SIMBAD [24][8]
R146 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 109 164,000 13.11 63,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [7][8]
R136a4 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 108 157,000 13.41 50,000 Evolution SIMBAD [24][8]
VFTS 621 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 107 164,000 15.39 54,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [11][8]
R136a6 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 105 157,000 13.35 52,000 Evolution SIMBAD [24][8]
Westerhout 49-3 (in Westerhout 49) 105 36,200 16.689 (J band) 40,700 Evolution SIMBAD [5][6]
WR 21a A (Runaway star from Westerlund 2) 103.6 26,100 12.661 (combined) 45,000 Binary SIMBAD [40][23]
R99 (in N44 of LMC) 103 164,000 11.52 28,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [7][15]
Arches-F6 (WR 102ah in Arches Cluster) 101 25,000 15.75 (J band) 33,900 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [35][36]
Sk -65° 47 (in NGC 1923 of LMC) 101 160,000 12.466 47,800 Evolution SIMBAD [28][19]
Arches-F1 (WR 102ad in Arches Cluster) 100.9 25,000 16.3 (J band) 33,200 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [35][36]
Peony Star (WR 102ka in Peony Nebula near Galactic Center) 100 26,000 12.978 (J band) 25,100 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [41][6]
VFTS 457 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 100 164,000 13.74 39,800 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [11][8]
η Carinae A (in Trumpler 16 of Carina Nebula) 100 7,500 4.3 (combined) 9,400-35,200 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [42][43]
Mercer 30-1 A (WR 46-3 A in Mercer 30 of Dragonfish Nebula) 99 40,000 10.33 (J band) 32,200 Evolution SIMBAD [44][g][e]
Sk -68° 137 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 99 160,000 13.346 50,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [18][19]
WR 25 A (in Trumpler 16 of Carina Nebula) 98 6,500 8.8 (combined) 50,100 Evolution SIMBAD [33][15][e]
BI 253 (Runaway star from Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 97.6 164,000 13.76 54,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [17][45]
R136a8 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 96 157,000 14.42 49,500 Evolution SIMBAD [24][46]
Westerhout 49-15 (in Westerhout 49) 96 36,200 18.307 (J band) 43,700 Evolution SIMBAD [5][6]
HD 38282 B (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 95 163,000 11.11 (combined) 47,000 Binary SIMBAD [47][23]
HM 1-6 (in HM 1) 95 11,000 11.64 44,700 Evolution SIMBAD [26][48]
NGC 3603-42 (in HD 97950 of NGC 3603) 95 25,000 12.86 50,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [18][21]
R139 A (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 95 163,000 11.94 (combined) 35,000 Binary SIMBAD [7][8]
BAT99-6 (in NGC 1747 of LMC) 94 165,000 11.95 56,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [7][19]
Sk -66° 172 (in N64 of LMC) 94 160,000 13.1 46,300 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [18][19][h]
ST2-22 (in NGC 2044 of LMC) 94 160,000 14.3 51,300 Evolution SIMBAD [28][49]
VFTS 259 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 94 164,000 13.65 37,600 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [11][8]
VFTS 562 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 94 164,000 13.66 42,200 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [11][8]
VFTS 512 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 93 164,000 14.28 47,300 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [11][8]
HD 97950 A1b (WR 43a B in HD 97950 of NGC 3603) 92 24,800 11.18 (combined) 40,000 Binary SIMBAD [20][21]
R136b (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 92 163,000 13.24 35,500 Evolution SIMBAD [24][8]
VFTS 16 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 91.6 164,000 13.55 50,600 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [17][8]
HD 97950 A3 (in HD 97950 of NGC 3603) 91 24,800 12.95 50,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [18][21]
NGC 346-W1 (in NGC 346 of SMC) 91 200,000 12.57 43,400 Evolution SIMBAD [28][50]
R127 (in NGC 2055 of LMC) 90 160,000 10.15 10,000-27,000 Evolution SIMBAD [51][23]
VFTS 333 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 90 164,000 12.49 37,600 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [11][8]
VFTS 267 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 89 164,000 13.49 44,700 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [11][8]
VFTS 64 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 88 164,000 14.621 39,800 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [11][19]
BAT99-80 A (in NGC 2044 of LMC) 87 165,000 13 (combined) 45,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [28][49]
R140b (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 87 165,000 12.66 47,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [7][8]
VFTS 542 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 87 164,000 13.47 44,700 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [11][8]
VFTS 599 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 87 164,000 13.8 44,700 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [11][8]
WR 89 (in HM 1) 87 11,000 11.02 39,800 Evolution SIMBAD [33][23]
Arches-F7 (WR 102aj in Arches Cluster) 86.3 25,000 15.74 (J band) 32,900 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [35][36]
Sk -69° 104 (in NGC 1910 of LMC) 86 160,000 12.1 39,900 Evolution SIMBAD [28][19]
VFTS 1017 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 86 164,000 14.5 50,100 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [11][8]
LH 10-3061 (in NGC 1763 of LMC) 85 160,000 13.491 52,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [18][19]
Sk 80 (in NGC 346 of SMC) 85 200,000 12.31 38,900 Evolution SIMBAD [28][52]
VFTS 603 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 85 164,000 13.99 42,200 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [11][8]
Sk -70° 91 (in BSDL 1830 of LMC) 84.09 165,000 12.78 48,900 Evolution SIMBAD [53][19][i]
R147 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 84 164,000 12.993 47,300 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [11][54]
HD 93250 A (in Trumpler 16 of Carina Nebula) 83.3 7,500 7.5 (combined) 46,000 Evolution SIMBAD [55][15][e]
Melnick 33Na A (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 83 163,000 13.79 (combined) 50,000 Evolution SIMBAD [56][57]
WR 20a A (in Westerlund 2) 82.7 20,000 13.28 (combined) 43,000 Binary SIMBAD [58]
TIC 276934932 A (in NGC 2048 of LMC) 82 160,000 14.05 (combined) 45,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [18][19]
WR 20a B (in Westerlund 2) 81.9 20,000 13.28 (combined) 43,000 Binary SIMBAD [58]
Trumpler 27-27 (in Trumpler 27) 81 3,900 13.31 37,000 Evolution SIMBAD [26][23]
BAT99-96 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 80 165,000 13.76 42,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [7][8]
HD 15570 (in IC 1805 of Heart Nebula) 80 7,500 8.11 46,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [14][15]
HD 38282 A (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 80 163,000 11.11 (combined) 47,000 Binary SIMBAD [47][23]
HSH95-46 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 80 163,000 14.56 47,500 Evolution SIMBAD [24][8]
Arches-F15 (in Arches Cluster) 79.7 25,000 16.12 (J band) 35,600 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [35][36]
BI 237 (in BSDL 2527 of LMC) 79.66 165,000 13.83 51,300 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [53][19][j]
VFTS 94 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 79 164,000 14.161 42,200 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [11][19]
VFTS 151 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 79 164,000 14.13 42,200 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [11][8]
LH 41-32 (in NGC 1910 of LMC) 78 160,000 13.086 48,200 Evolution SIMBAD [28][19]
Pismis 24-17 (in Pismis 24 of NGC 6357) 78 5,900 11.84 42,700 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [59][48]
VFTS 404 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 78 164,000 14.14 44,700 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [11][8]
Westerhout 51-2 (in Westerhout 51) 77 20,000 13.68 (J band) 42,700 Evolution SIMBAD [12]
BAT99-68 (in BSDL 2505 of LMC) 76 165,000 14.13 45,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [7][19][k]
HD 93632 (in Collinder 228 of Carina Nebula) 76 10,000 8.23 45,400 Evolution SIMBAD [26][15]
NGC 346-W3 (in NGC 346 of SMC) 76 200,000 12.8 52,500 Evolution SIMBAD [28][50]
VFTS 169 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 76 164,000 14.437 47,300 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [11][19]
VFTS 440 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 76 164,000 12.046 39,800 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [11][19]
AB1 (in DEM S10 of SMC) 75 197,000 15.238 79,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [60][50][l]
WR 22 A (in Bochum 10 of Carina Nebula) 75 8,300 6.42 (combined) 44,700 Evolution SIMBAD [33][15][m]
Pismis 24-1NE (in Pismis 24 of NGC 6357) 74 6,500 11 42,500 Binary SIMBAD [59][61]
VFTS 608 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 74 164,000 14.22 42,200 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [11][8]
HSH95-31 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 73 163,000 14.12 47,500 Evolution SIMBAD [24][8]
Mercer 30-3 (in Mercer 30 of Dragonfish Nebula) 73 40,000 12.62 (J band) 39,300 Evolution SIMBAD [44][g]
Mercer 30-11 (in Mercer 30 of Dragonfish Nebula) 73 40,000 12.33 (J band) 36,800 Evolution SIMBAD [44][g]
VFTS 566 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 73 164,000 14.05 44,700 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [11][8]
LH 64-16 (in NGC 2001 of LMC) 72 160,000 13.666 50,900 Evolution SIMBAD [28][30]
NGC 2044-W35 (in NGC 2044 of LMC) 72 160,000 14.1 48,200 Evolution SIMBAD [28][19]
VFTS 216 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 72 164,000 14.389 44,700 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [11][19]
ST2-1 (in NGC 2044 of LMC) 71 160,000 14.3 44,100 Evolution SIMBAD [28][49]
VFTS 3 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 71 164,000 11.56 21,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [62][8]
Arches-F12 (WR 102af in Arches Cluster) 70 25,000 16.4 (J band) 36,900 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [35][36]
HD 15629 (in IC 1805 of Heart Nebula) 70 7,500 8.42 45,900 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [14][15]
HD 37974 (in N135 of LMC) 70 163,000 10.99 22,500 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [63][23][n]
HD 93129 Ab (in Trumpler 14 of Carina Nebula) 70 7,500 7.31 (combined) 44,000 Trinary SIMBAD [39][64]
M33 X-7 B (in Triangulum Galaxy) 70 2,700,000 18.7 35,000 Binary SIMBAD [65][66]
Sk -69° 194 A (in NGC 2033 of LMC) 70 160,000 12.131 (combined) 45,000 Evolution SIMBAD [28][54][e]
VFTS 125 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 69.6 164,000 16.6 55,200 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [17][49]
HD 46150 (in NGC 2244 of Rosette Nebula) 69 5,200 6.73 44,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [18][15]
HD 229059 (in Berkeley 87) 69 3,000 8.7 26,300 Evolution SIMBAD [26][15]
ST2-3 (in NGC 2044 of LMC) 69 160,000 14.264 44,900 Evolution SIMBAD [28][19]
ST2-32 (in NGC 2044 of LMC) 69 160,000 13.903 45,400 Evolution SIMBAD [28][19]
W28-23 (in NGC 2033 of LMC) 69 160,000 13.702 51,300 Evolution SIMBAD [28][30]
HD 93403 A (in Trumpler 16 of Carina Nebula) 68.5 10,400 8.27 (combined) 39,300 Binary SIMBAD [67][23]
HD 93130 (in Collinder 228 of Carina Nebula) 68 10,000 8.04 39,900 Evolution SIMBAD [26][15]
HM 1-8 (in HM 1) 68 11,000 12.52 46,100 Evolution SIMBAD [26][48]
HSH95-47 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 68 163,000 14.72 43,500 Evolution SIMBAD [24][8]
HSH95-48 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 68 163,000 14.75 46,500 Evolution SIMBAD [24][46]
Westerhout 51-61 (in Westerhout 51) 68 20,000 18.16 (J band) 38,000 Evolution SIMBAD [12][6]
BAT99-93 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 67 165,000 13.446 45,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [7][19]
Sk -69° 200 (in NGC 2033 of LMC) 67 160,000 11.18 26,300 Evolution SIMBAD [28][19]
Arches-F18 (in Arches Cluster) 66.9 25,000 16.7 (J band) 36,900 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [35][36]
Arches-F4 (WR 102al in Arches Cluster) 66.4 25,000 15.63 (J band) 36,800 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [35][36]
BAT99-59 A (in NGC 2020 of LMC) 66 165,000 13.186 (combined) 71,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [7][19][e]
BAT99-104 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 66 165,000 12.5 63,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [7][19]
HD 5980 B (in NGC 346 of SMC) 66 200,000 11.31 (combined) 45,000 Trinary SIMBAD [68][64]
HD 190429 A (near Barnard 146) 66 7,800 6.63 (combined) 46,000 Binary SIMBAD [69][15]
LH 31-1003 (in NGC 1858 of LMC) 66 160,000 13.186 41,900 Evolution SIMBAD [28][19]
LH 114-7 (in N70 of LMC) 66 160,000 13.66 50,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [18][19][o]
Pismis 24-1SW (in Pismis 24 of NGC 6357) 66 6,500 11.1 40,000 Binary SIMBAD [59][61]
BAT99-126 (in NGC 2081 of LMC) 65 165,000 13.166 71,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [7][19]
HSH95-40 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 65 163,000 14.56 47,500 Evolution SIMBAD [24][8]
HSH95-58 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 65 163,000 14.8 47,500 Evolution SIMBAD [24][8]
HSH95-89 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 65 163,000 14.76 44,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [46]
VFTS 63 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 65 164,000 14.4 42,200 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [11][49]
VFTS 145 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 65 164,000 14.3 39,800 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [11][8]
VFTS 518 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 65 164,000 15.11 44,700 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [11][8]
Westerhout 49-8 (in Westerhout 49) 65 36,200 15.617 (J band) 40,700 Evolution SIMBAD [5][6]
BD+43° 3654 (Runaway star from Cygnus OB2) 64.6 5,400 10.06 40,400 Evolution SIMBAD [70][64]
BAT99-129 A (in DEM L294 of LMC) 64 165,000 14.701 (combined) 79,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [7][19][p][e]
HSH95-50 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 64 163,000 14.65 47,000 Evolution SIMBAD [24][8]
Sk -69° 25 (in NGC 1748 of LMC) 64 160,000 11.886 43,600 Evolution SIMBAD [28][19]
Trumpler 27-23 (in Trumpler 27) 64 3,900 10.09 27,500 Evolution SIMBAD [26][23]
Westerhout 49-5 (in Westerhout 49) 64 36,200 15.623 (J band) 42,700 Evolution SIMBAD [5][6]
HD 46223 (in NGC 2244 of Rosette Nebula) 63 5,200 7.28 46,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [18][15]
HD 64568 (in NGC 2467 of Puppis OB2) 63 16,000 9.39 54,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [18][23]
HD 303308 (in Trumpler 16 of Carina Nebula) 63 9,200 8.17 51,300 Evolution SIMBAD [26][23]
HR 6187 A (in NGC 6193 of Ara OB1) 63 4,300 5.54 (combined) 46,500 Septenary SIMBAD [71][15]
LH 10-3058 (in NGC 1763 of LMC) 63 160,000 14.089 54,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [18][19]
ST5-71 (in NGC 2074 of LMC) 63 160,000 13.266 45,400 Evolution SIMBAD [28][19]
AB9 (in DEM S80 of SMC) 62 197,000 15.431 100,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [60][50][q]
Brey 32 B (in NGC 1966 of LMC) 62 165,000 12.32 (combined) 43,600 Evolution SIMBAD [28][23]
HD 93160 (in Trumpler 14 of Carina Nebula) 62 8,000 7.6 42,700 Evolution SIMBAD [26][15]
HSH95-35 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 62 163,000 14.43 47,500 Evolution SIMBAD [24][8]
LH 41-1017 (in NGC 1910 of LMC) 62 160,000 12.266 42,700 Evolution SIMBAD [28][19]
Mercer 30-6a A (WR 46-4 A in Mercer 30 of Dragonfish Nebula) 62 40,000 10.39 (J band) 29,900 Evolution SIMBAD [44][g][e]
ST4-18 (in NGC 2081 of LMC) 62 160,000 13.639 44,800 Evolution SIMBAD [28][19]
VFTS 664 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 62 164,000 13.937 39,900 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [11][19]
HD 229196 (in Cygnus OB9) 61.6 5,000 8.59 40,900 Evolution SIMBAD [70][48]
AB8 B (in NGC 602 of SMC) 61 197,000 12.83 (combined) 45,000 Binary SIMBAD [68][72]
BAT99-79 A (in NGC 2044 of LMC) 61 165,000 13.486 (combined) 42,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [7][19][e]
HD 5980 A (in NGC 346 of SMC) 61 200,000 11.31 (combined) 21,000-53,000 Trinary SIMBAD [68][64]
LH 41-18 (in NGC 1910 of LMC) 61 160,000 12.586 38,500 Evolution SIMBAD [28][19]
Mercer 30-9 A (in Mercer 30 of Dragonfish Nebula) 61 40,000 12.25 (J band) 34,500 Evolution SIMBAD [44][g][e]
ST5-25 (in NGC 2074 of LMC) 61 160,000 13.551 48,600 Evolution SIMBAD [28][30]
VFTS 422 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 61 164,000 15.14 39,800 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [11][8]
WR 102hb (in Quintuplet cluster) 61 26,000 13.9 (J band) 25,100 Evolution SIMBAD [73][74]
Sk -67° 166 (in GKK-A144 of LMC) 60.68 160,000 12.22 41,800 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [53][19][r]
Sk -67° 167 (in GKK-A144 of LMC) 60.68 160,000 12.586 41,800 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [53][19][r]
Sk -71° 46 (in BSDL 2242 of LMC) 60.68 160,000 13.241 41,800 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [53][19][s]
Brey 10 (in NGC 1770 of LMC) 60 165,000 12.69 117,000 Evolution SIMBAD [28][23]
Brey 94 A (in NGC 2081 of LMC) 60 165,000 12.996 (combined) 83,000 Evolution SIMBAD [28][19][e]
Brey 95a A (in NGC 2081 of LMC) 60 165,000 12.2 (combined) 83,000 Evolution SIMBAD [28][75][e]
HSH95-55 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 60 163,000 14.74 47,500 Evolution SIMBAD [24][8]
Mercer 30-7 A (WR 46-5 A in Mercer 30 of Dragonfish Nebula) 60 40,000 11.516 (J band) 41,400 Evolution SIMBAD [44][g][e]
R134 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 60 164,000 12.75 39,800 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [11][8]
R142 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 60 164,000 11.82 18,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [62][8]
R143 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 60 160,000 12.014 18,000-36,000 Evolution SIMBAD [51][19]
Sk -69° 142a (in NGC 1983 of LMC) 60 160,000 11.093 34,000 Evolution SIMBAD [51][54]
Sk -69° 259 (in NGC 2081 of LMC) 60 160,000 11.93 23,000 Evolution SIMBAD [28][23]
Var 83 (in Triangulum Galaxy) 60 3,000,000 16.027 18,000-37,000 Evolution SIMBAD [76][77]
VFTS 430 (in Tarantula Nebula of LMC) 60 164,000 15.11 24,500 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [62][8]

A few notable stars of mass less than 60 M are included for the purpose of comparison.

Star name Mass
(M, Sun = 1)
Approx. distance
from earth (ly)
Apparent
visible magnitude
Effective
temperature (K)
Estimation
method
Link Reference
ζ Puppis (Naos in Vela R2 of Vela Molecular Ridge) 56.1 1,080 2.25 40,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [69][15][t]
λ Cephei (Runaway star from Cepheus OB3) 51.4 3,100 5.05 36,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [69][15]
τ Canis Majoris Aa (in NGC 2362) 50 5,120 4.89 32,000 Evolution SIMBAD [78][15]
θ Muscae Ab (in Centaurus OB1) 44 7,400 5.53 (combined) 33,000 Evolution SIMBAD [79][15]
ε Orionis (Alnilam in Orion OB1 of Orion complex) 40 2,000 1.69 27,500 Evolution SIMBAD [80][15]
θ2 Orionis A (in Orion OB1 of Orion complex) 39 1,500 5.02 34,900 Evolution SIMBAD [81][82]
α Camelopardalis (Runaway star from NGC 1502) 37.6 6,000 4.29 29,000 Evolution SIMBAD [83][15]
P Cygni (in IC 4996 of Cygnus OB1) 37 5,100 4.82 18,700 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [84][15][u]
ζ1 Scorpii (in NGC 6231 of Scorpius OB1) 36 8,210 4.705 17,200 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [37][85]
ζ Orionis Aa (Alnitak in Orion OB1 of Orion complex) 33 1,260 2.08 29,500 Evolution SIMBAD [86]
θ1 Orionis C1 (in Trapezium Cluster of Orion complex) 33 1,340 5.13 (combined) 39,000 Evolution SIMBAD [87][15]
κ Cassiopeiae (in Cassiopeia OB14) 33 4,000 4.16 23,500 Evolution SIMBAD [88][15]
μ Normae (in NGC 6169) 33 3,260 4.91 28,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [89][15]
η Carinae B (in Trumpler 16 of Carina Nebula) 30 7,500 4.3 (combined) 37,200 Binary SIMBAD [90][43]
γ2 Velorum B (in Vela OB2) 28.5 1,230 1.83 (combined) 35,000 Evolution SIMBAD [91][15]
λ Orionis A (Meissa in Collinder 69 of Orion complex) 27.9 1,100 3.54 37,700 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [89][92]
ξ Persei (Menkib in California Nebula of Perseus OB2) 26.1 1,200 4.04 35,000 Evolution SIMBAD [83][15]
WR 79a (in NGC 6231 of Scorpius OB1) 24.4 5,600 5.77 35,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [89][15]
δ Orionis Aa1 (Mintaka in Orion OB1 of Orion complex) 24 1,200 2.5 (combined) 29,500 Evolution SIMBAD [93][94]
ι Orionis Aa1 (Hatysa in NGC 1980 of Orion complex) 23.1 1,340 2.77 (combined) 32,500 Evolution SIMBAD [95][96]
κ Crucis (in Jewel Box Cluster of Centaurus OB1) 23 7,500 5.98 16,300 Evolution SIMBAD [97][64]
WR 78 (in NGC 6231 of Scorpius OB1) 22 4,100 6.48 50,100 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [33][34]
ο2 Canis Majoris (in Collinder 121) 21.4 2,800 3.043 15,500 Evolution SIMBAD [89][15]
β Orionis A (Rigel in Orion OB1 of Orion complex) 21 860 0.13 12,100 Evolution SIMBAD [98][15]
η Canis Majoris (Aludra in Collinder 121) 21 2,000 2.45 15,000 Evolution SIMBAD [88][15]
ζ Ophiuchi (in Upper Scorpius subgroup of Scorpius OB2) 20.2 370 2.569 34,000 Evolution SIMBAD [83][15]
υ Orionis (in Orion OB1 of Orion complex) 20 2,900 4.618 33,400 Evolution SIMBAD [99][100]
σ Orionis Aa (in Orion OB1 of Orion complex) 18 1,260 4.07 (combined) 35,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [101][102]
μ Columbae (Runaway star from Trapezium Cluster) 16 1,300 5.18 33,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [103][15]
κ Orionis (Saiph in Orion OB1 of Orion complex) 15.5 650 2.09 26,500 Evolution SIMBAD [104][15]
σ Cygni (in Cygnus OB4) 15 3,260 4.233 10,800 Evolution SIMBAD [105][106]
θ Carinae A (in IC 2602 of Scorpius OB2) 14.9 460 2.76 (combined) 31,000 Evolution SIMBAD [89][107]
θ2 Orionis B (in Orion OB1 of Orion complex) 14.8 1,500 6.38 29,300 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [108]
ζ Persei (in Perseus OB2) 14.5 750 2.86 20,800 Evolution SIMBAD [104][15]
σ Orionis B (in Orion OB1 of Orion complex) 14 1,260 4.07 (combined) 31,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [101][102]
β Canis Majoris (Mirzam in Local Bubble of Scorpius OB2) 13.5 490 1.985 23,200 Evolution SIMBAD [109][110]
ε Persei A (in α Persei Cluster) 13.5 640 2.88 (combined) 26,500 Evolution SIMBAD [111][112]
ι Orionis Aa2 (in NGC 1980 of Orion complex) 13.1 1,340 2.77 (combined) 27,000 Evolution SIMBAD [95][96]
δ Scorpii A (Dschubba in Upper Scorpius subgroup of Scorpius OB2) 13 440 2.307 (combined) 27,400 Evolution SIMBAD [113][114]
σ Orionis Ab (in Orion OB1 of Orion complex) 13 1,260 4.07 (combined) 29,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [101][102]
θ Muscae Aa (WR 48 in Centaurus OB1) 11.5 7,400 5.53 (combined) 83,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [115][15]
γ2 Velorum A (WR 11 in Vela OB2) 9 1,230 1.83 (combined) 57,000 Spectroscopy SIMBAD [91][15]
ρ Ophiuchi A (in ρ Ophiuchi cloud complex of Scorpius OB2) 8.7 360 4.63 (combined) 22,000 Evolution SIMBAD [89][15]
γ Orionis (Bellatrix in Bellatrix Cluster of Orion complex) 7.7 250 1.64 21,800 Evolution SIMBAD [116][15]
α Scorpii B (in Loop I Bubble of Scorpius OB2) 7.2 550 5.5 18,500 Evolution SIMBAD [117][92]
λ Tauri A (in Pisces-Eridanus stellar stream) 7.18 480 3.47 (combined) 18,700 Evolution SIMBAD [118][119]
δ Persei (in α Persei Cluster) 7 520 3.01 14,900 Evolution SIMBAD [89][107]
ψ Persei (in α Persei Cluster) 6.2 580 4.31 16,000 Evolution SIMBAD [89][15]
α Pavonis Aa (Peacock in Tucana-Horologium association) 5.91 180 1.94 17,700 Evolution SIMBAD [120][96]
η Tauri A (Alcyone in Pleiades) 5.9 440 2.87 (combined) 12,300 Evolution SIMBAD [121][15]
γ Canis Majoris (Muliphein in Collinder 121) 5.6 440 4.1 13,600 Evolution SIMBAD [89][122]
ο Velorum (in IC 2391 of Scorpius OB2) 5.5 490 3.6 16,200 Evolution SIMBAD [123][107]
ο Aquarii (in Pisces-Eridanus stellar stream) 4.2 440 4.71 13,500 Evolution SIMBAD [124][125]
ν Fornacis (in Pisces-Eridanus stellar stream) 3.65 370 4.69 13,400 Evolution SIMBAD [126][15]
φ Eridani (in Tucana-Horologium association) 3.55 150 3.55 13,700 Evolution SIMBAD [120][127]
η Chamaeleontis (in η Chamaeleontis moving group of Scorpius OB2) 3.2 310 5.453 12,500 Evolution SIMBAD [128][64]
ε Chamaeleontis (in ε Chamaeleontis moving group of Scorpius OB2) 2.87 360 4.91 10,900 Evolution SIMBAD [129][107]
τ1 Aquarii (in Pisces-Eridanus stellar stream) 2.68 320 5.66 10,600 Evolution SIMBAD [130][131]
ε Hydri (in Tucana-Horologium association) 2.64 150 4.12 11,000 Evolution SIMBAD [130][132]
β1 Tucanae (in Tucana-Horologium association) 2.5 140 4.37 10,600 Evolution SIMBAD [89][92]
Sun (in Solar System) 1 0.0000158 −26.744 5,772 Standard IAU [133][134][135]

*******************

List of the largest known stars in the Milky Way
Star name Solar radii
(Sun = 1)
Method[a] Notes
Stephenson 2-18 2,150[4] L/Teff Located in close proximity to the extremely massive open cluster Stephenson 2 (RSGC2), where 25 other red supergiants are also located. Membership in the cluster currently uncertain, with large uncertainties in the measurements.
Orbit of Saturn 2,0472,049.9[5][b] Reported for reference
UY Scuti 1,708±192[6] AD The radius of UY Sct is more extreme than what current stellar evolution models predict. One paper mentions this extremity, and the reason for it is not yet clear.[7]
RSGC1-F01 1,530[8] L/Teff
The above radii are larger than what stellar evolution theory predicts, and are thus potentially unreliable
Theoretical limit of star size (Milky Way) ~1,500[9] This value comes from the rough average radii of the three largest stars studied in the paper. It is consistent with the largest possible stellar radii predicted from the current evolutionary theory, and it is believed that stars above this radius would be too unstable and simply do not form.[9]
Reported for reference
RSGC1-F04 1,422[8] L/Teff
VY Canis Majoris 1,420±120[10] AD
KY Cygni 1,420±284–(2,850±570)[9] L/Teff
CM Velorum 1,416.2385+0.3981
−0.9623
[11]
L/Teff
AH Scorpii 1,411±124[6] AD
RSGC1-F06 1,382[8] L/Teff
CD-26 5055 1,279.8291+20.4064
−122.9196
[11]
L/Teff
AS Cephei 1,262.5137+18.8257
−8.6085
[11]
L/Teff
RSGC1-F10 1,246[8] L/Teff
Westerlund 1 W237 (Westerlund 1 BKS B) 1,241±70[12] L/Teff
IRC -10414 ~1,200[13] L/Teff
V517 Monocerotis 1,196.2521+79.7298
−158.8974
[11]
L/Teff
PZ Cassiopeiae 1,190±238(–1,940±388)[9] L/Teff
BC Cygni 1,186.6136+33.6601
−37.1276
[11]
L/Teff A more detailed but older study gives values of 1,081 R (8561,375) for the year 2000, and 1,303 R (1,0211,553) for the year 1900.[14]
RSGC1-F05 1,185[8] L/Teff
NML Cygni 1,183[15] L/Teff
GCIRS 7 1,170±60[16]1,368[17] AD
Westerlund 1 W26 (Westerlund 1 BKS AS) 1,165±581,221±120[12] L/Teff
RSGC1-F08 1,150[8] L/Teff
RSGC1-F02 1,128[8] L/Teff
Orbit of Jupiter 1,114.51,115.8[5][b] Reported for reference
V766 Centauri Aa 1,110±50[18] ? V766 Centauri Aa is a rare variable yellow supergiant.
RT Carinae 1,090±218[9] L/Teff
UU Persei 1,078.8212+8.5103
−8.2887
[11]
L/Teff
V396 Centauri 1,070±214[9]1,145.31[19] L/Teff & ?
HD 126577 1,065.5137+8.6624
−31.799
[11]
L/Teff
W Persei 1,052.6853+76.7502
−85.3499
[11]
L/Teff
V602 Carinae 1,050±165[20] AD
RSGC1-F11 1,035[8] L/Teff
RSGC1-F13 1,017[8] L/Teff
CK Carinae 1,013.421,060±212[9] L/Teff
KW Sagittarii 1,009±142[6] AD
RSGC1-F07 1,006[8] L/Teff
V349 Carinae 1,001.6769+12.0794
−73.6583
[11]
L/Teff
RSGC1-F09 996[8] L/Teff
RSGC1-F12 955[8] L/Teff
RSGC1-F03 942[8] L/Teff
AZ Cygni 911+57
−50
[21]
AD
NSV 25875 891[15] L/Teff
V437 Scuti 874[15] L/Teff
LL Pegasi 869[15] L/Teff
V669 Cassiopeiae 859[15] L/Teff
Westerlund 1 W20 (Westerlund 1 BKS D) 858±48[12] L/Teff
VX Sagittarii 853[15]1,335±215[22] L/Teff
BI Cygni 851.14[23]1,240±248[9] L/Teff
μ Cephei (Herschel’s Garnet Star) 830[15]972±228[24] AD
V1185 Scorpii 830[15] L/Teff
CW Leonis 826[15] L/Teff
LP Andromedae 815[15] L/Teff
U Arietis 801±205[25] AD
RT Ophiuchi 801±217[26] AD
BO Carinae 790±158[9] L/Teff
S Persei 780±156(–1,230±246)[9] L/Teff
SU Persei 780±156[9] – 971.405[19] L/Teff
RS Persei 770±30[27] AD
V355 Cephei 770±154[9] L/Teff
GU Cephei A 766.486[19] ?
Betelgeuse (α Orionis) 764+116
−62
[28]
? Tenth brightest star in the night sky.[29]
HD 303250 750±150[9] L/Teff
UU Pegasi 742±193[26] AD
Westerlund 1 W75 (Westerlund 1 BKS E) 722±36[12] L/Teff
V Camelopardalis 716±185[26] AD
V923 Centauri 715.539[19] ?
V528 Carinae 700±140[9] L/Teff
The following well-known stars are listed for the purpose of comparison.
V354 Cephei 685[30] L/Teff
Antares A (α Scorpii) 680[31] AD Fourteenth brightest star in the night sky.[29]
Mira A (ο Ceti) 541[15] L/Teff
Unurgunite (σ Canis Majoris) 420±84[9] L/Teff
Orbit of Mars 322323.1[5][b] Reported for reference
Pistol Star (V4647 Sagittarii) 306[32] ?
Rasalgethi A (α Herculis) 284±60 (264303)[33] L/Teff
Wezen (δ Canis Majoris) 215±66[34] AD Thirty-sixth brightest star in the night sky.[29]
Orbit of Earth (~1 AU) 214[5][b] Reported for reference
Enif (ε Pegasi) 210.37 – 210.69[35] ?
Suhail (λ Velorum) 210[36] ?
Deneb (α Cygni) 203±17[37] ? Eighteenth brightest star in the night sky.[29]
Orbit of Venus 158.6[5][b] Reported for reference
Orbit of Mercury 82.984.6[5][b] Reported for reference
Vega (α Lyrae) 2.726±0.006 × 2.418±0.012[38] Fifth brightest star in the night sky.[29]
Reported for reference
Sun 1 The largest object in the Solar System.
Reported for reference

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Large Quasar Groups
LQG Date Mean Distance Dimension # of quasars Notes
Webster LQG
(LQG 1)
1982 z=0.37 100 Mpc 5 First LQG discovered. At the time of its discovery, it was the largest structure known.[1][4][5]
Crampton–Cowley–Hartwick LQG
(LQG 2, CCH LQG, Komberg-Kravtsov-Lukash LQG 10)
1987 z=1.11 60 Mpc 28 Second LQG discovered [1][4][6]
Clowes–Campusano LQG
(U1.28, CCLQG, LQG 3)
1991 z=1.28
  • longest dimension: 630 Mpc
34 Third LQG discovered [4][7]
U1.90 1995 z=1.9 120Mpc/h 10 Discovered by Graham, Clowes, Campusano.[1][6][8]
7Sf Group
(U0.19)
1995 z=0.19 60 Mpc/h 7 Discovered by Graham, Clowes, Campusano; this is a grouping of 7 Seyfert galaxies.[1][6][8]
Komberg–Kravtsov–Lukash LQG 1 1996 z=0.6 R=96 Mpc/h 12 Discovered by Komberg, Kravtsov, Lukash.[1][6]
Komberg–Kravtsov–Lukash LQG 2 1996 z=0.6 R=111 Mpc/h 12 Discovered by Komberg, Kravtsov, Lukash.[1][6]
Komberg–Kravtsov–Lukash LQG 3 1996 z=1.3 R=123 Mpc/h 14 Discovered by Komberg, Kravtsov, Lukash.[1][6]
Komberg–Kravtsov–Lukash LQG 4 1996 z=1.9 R=104 Mpc/h 14 Discovered by Komberg, Kravtsov, Lukash.[1][6]
Komberg–Kravtsov–Lukash LQG 5 1996 z=1.7 R=146 Mpc/h 13 Discovered by Komberg, Kravtsov, Lukash.[1][6]
Komberg–Kravtsov–Lukash LQG 6 1996 z=1.5 R=94 Mpc/h 10 Discovered by Komberg, Kravtsov, Lukash.[1][6]
Komberg–Kravtsov–Lukash LQG 7 1996 z=1.9 R=92 Mpc/h 10 Discovered by Komberg, Kravtsov, Lukash.[1][6]
Komberg–Kravtsov–Lukash LQG 8 1996 z=2.1 R=104 Mpc/h 12 Discovered by Komberg, Kravtsov, Lukash.[1][6]
Komberg–Kravtsov–Lukash LQG 9 1996 z=1.9 R=66 Mpc/h 18 Discovered by Komberg, Kravtsov, Lukash.[1][6]
Komberg–Kravtsov–Lukash LQG 11 1996 z=0.7 R=157 Mpc/h 11 Discovered by Komberg, Kravtsov, Lukash.[1][6]
Komberg–Kravtsov–Lukash LQG 12 1996 z=1.2 R=155 Mpc/h 14 Discovered by Komberg, Kravtsov, Lukash.[1][6]
Newman LQG
(U1.54)
1998 z=1.54 150 Mpc/h 21 Discovered by P.R. Newman et al. This structure is parallel to the CCLQG, with its discovery, suggesting that the cellular structure of sheets and voids already existed in this era, as found in later void bubbles and walls of galaxies.,[1][7]
Tesch–Engels LQG 2000 z=0.27 140 Mpc/h 7 The first X-ray selected LQG.[1]
U1.11 2011 z=1.11
  • longest dimension: 780 Mpc
38 [4][7]
Huge-LQG
(U1.27)
2013 z=1.27
  • characteristic size: 500 Mpc
  • longest dimension: 1240 Mpc
73 The largest structure known in the observable universe[4][9] until it was eclipsed by the Hercules–Corona Borealis Great Wall found one year later.[10][11][12]

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Pre-20th century

  • 5th century BC — Democritus proposes that the bright band in the night sky known as the Milky Way might consist of stars.
  • 4th century BC — Aristotle believes the Milky Way to be caused by “the ignition of the fiery exhalation of some stars which were large, numerous and close together” and that the “ignition takes place in the upper part of the atmosphere, in the region of the world which is continuous with the heavenly motions“,[1]
  • 964 — Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi (Azophi), a Persian astronomer, makes the first recorded observations of the Andromeda Galaxy[2] and the Large Magellanic Cloud[3][4] in his Book of Fixed Stars, and which are the first galaxies other than the Milky Way to be observed from Earth,
  • 11th century — Al-Biruni, another Persian astronomer, describes the Milky Way galaxy as a collection of numerous nebulous stars,[5]
  • 11th century — Alhazen (Ibn al-Haytham), an Arabian astronomer, refutes Aristotle’s theory on the Milky Way by making the first attempt at observing and measuring the Milky Way’s parallax,[6] and he thus “determined that because the Milky Way had no parallax, it was very remote from the Earth and did not belong to the atmosphere”,[7]
  • 12th century — Avempace (Ibn Bajjah) of Islamic Spain proposes the Milky Way to be made up of many stars but that it appears to be a continuous image due to the effect of refraction in the Earth’s atmosphere,[1]
  • 14th century — Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya of Syria proposes the Milky Way galaxy to be “a myriad of tiny stars packed together in the sphere of the fixed stars” and that these stars are larger than planets,[8]
  • 1521 — Ferdinand Magellan observes the Magellanic Clouds during his circumnavigating expedition,
  • 1610 — Galileo Galilei uses a telescope to determine that the bright band on the sky, the “Milky Way“, is composed of many faint stars
  • 1612 – Simon Marius using a moderate telescope observes Andromeda and describes as a “flame seen through horn”.
  • 1750 — Thomas Wright discusses galaxies and the flattened shape of the Milky Way and speculates nebulae as separate
  • 1755 — Immanuel Kant drawing on Wright’s work conjectures our galaxy is a rotating disk of stars held together by gravity, and that the nebulae are separate such galaxies; he calls them Island Universes
  • 1774 — Charles Messier releases a preliminary list of 45 Messier objects, three of which turn out to be the galaxies including Andromeda and Triangulum. By 1781 the final published list grows to 103 objects, 34 of which turn out to be galaxies.
  • 1785 — William Herschel carried the first attempt to describe the shape of the Milky Way and the position of the Sun in it by carefully counting the number of stars in different regions of the sky. He produced a diagram of the shape of the galaxy with the solar system close to the center.
  • 1845 — Lord Rosse discovers a nebula with a distinct spiral shape

Early 20th century

Mid-20th century

Early 21st century

********************

The Extinction Cycle a.k.a. the Biblical Great Tribulation Period

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The following information is generally being placed on the bottom of some of the pages in which are being renamed and reworked. The goal is to help any visitor to better understand the overall theme of the End Times Biblical Teaching of the Great Tribulation Period, etc. It is not to overwhelm the page or the viewer, but to capture your attention, as some viewers only visit one page or many just a few and then move on, never to return again. Maybe with this material, you will understand how, then the why of the method. This bottom information material was created on June 4, 2022 and I may add a few more notes of time to time, which will appear on some pages, but not others. Most recent updates added to this page was on June 27, 2022.

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When the coming Extinction Cycle a.k.a the Biblical Great Tribulation Period actually begins with the Great Earthquakes; Massive Volcanic Eruptions; Tsunamis on a Global scale; a Comet hits the earth; the Magnetic Field weakens and allows Comic Lightening to strike the earth; and all the World Governmental, Corporate Business and Mainstream Religious Leaders, including all of the so called powers-that-be fail to provide Truthful answers; how are the almost 8 billion masses of humanity going to feel, when their lives are about to vanish away?

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It is going to be so amazing when these events begin to unfold and the people who present themselves as Leaders of People, (great and powerful), become nothing but mere frighten helpless creatures of earthen clay.

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Here are some Excellent, actually; they are Most Outstanding Videos from:

https://www.youtube.com/c/GeologyHub

Be sure to take time to watch them.

They will help you to understand how God will use the Earth to bring about the Great Tribulation Period with the use of Earthquakes and Volcanoes, including Tsunamis, which are produced by Underwater Earthquakes and Volcanic Eruptions, throughout the Oceans and Seas of the world.

From:  https://www.youtube.com/c/GeologyHub

and:  https://www.youtube.com/c/GeologyHub/videos

and:  https://twitter.com/HubGeology

and:  https://www.facebook.com/GeologyHubYT

and:  https://www.youtube.com/c/GeologyHub/community

and:  http://prospectingarizona.com/

and:  https://www.patreon.com/geologyhub

and amazing photos:   https://www.pinterest.com/prospectingarizona/

and their shop:  https://www.etsy.com/shop/prospectingarizona/

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01.   20 Largest Earthquakes in the World
02.   Global Earthquakes
03.   Megathrust Earthquake List
04.   Megathrust Earthquake
05.   Megathrust Earthquake Images
06.   Historical Earthquakes
07.   Deadly Earthquakes since 1900
08.   8.0+ Earthqauake in Images
09.   8.0+ Earthqauake in Videos
10.  EarthquakeTrack.com 8.0+ Earthquake List
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June 2, 2022: a new galaxy discovered as to be the farthest from earth.
01.    New Galaxy Farthest from Earth
02.   New Galaxy Farthest from Earth in Images
03.   Farthest Galaxy From Earth; Jan 22, 2022
04.  HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD
05.   Deep Universe Observatory videos
06.   HD1 (galaxy)
07.   Galaxy Cluster
08.   Supercluster
09.   List of Largest Cosmic Structures
10.   List of the Most Distant Astronomical Objects
11.   Blue Variable Star
12.  Luminous Blue Variable
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13.   The Largest Black Holes in the Universe; Sep 26, 2012
14.   Stunning Portrait of the Milky Way Galaxy; Dec 31, 2008
15.   Hubble Dazzling First Light Images in HD; Sep 9, 2009
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There is virtually an unlimited amount of comprehension in the Universe. It is going to be so amazing, when True Christian Believers enter into infinity!!! Likewise, it is going to be very unfortunate for others, who are not True Christian Believers, but simply put on a show of religion or else those individuals who have never been Saved by Grace through Faith in the Lord Jesus Christ.
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June 14, 2022: Hey Viewers, if any??? Here is a brief review with links about some Bible Prophecy dealing with Islam, Judaism and Roman Catholics.
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01.  There are several pages of studies on this website about how the Roman Catholics will unite with Islam and eventually with the Biblical Antichrist of the 10 Islamic nations in the Middle East; which will form an Islamic Caliphate. Sometime during this 3 ½ year time frame, the followers of Islam will turn against the Catholics within the region and basically pillage and burn their buildings, then kill them by the millions.
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02.  Islam in a round-about-way is trying and will more so in the future, to deceive the Jews in Israel; that they want peace, at least in some regards, among some groups of people. This will catch them off guard; then the Islamic masses surrounding the nation Israel will conduct a surprise military attack and kill 2/3rds of the Jewish population, capture Jerusalem and all the land from Dan to Beersheba; then hold it for 3 ½ years. There are about 6,894,000 Jews in Israel. The Bible informs us that of this Jewish population, 2/3rds will be killed during the invasion from the Islamic forces, which will amount to about 4,619,000 Jews; more or less, depending on when this invasion occurs.
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03.  The followers of Islam during this end time prophecy, will be giving an allegiance to the Biblical Antichrist or Beast of Revelation. This person is the Islamic leader of the core 10 Islamic Nations that unite to form this Caliphate in the Middle East. At the end of this 3 ½ years at the Battle of Armageddon; when it is assembled in the Valley of Megiddo, (Megiddo valley is also called Plain of Esdraelon or Plain of Jezreel (Vale of Jezreel) the Jordan River Valley will spread apart enough to create a Basalt Lava Field and destroy the majority of the army of the Antichrist. The masses of Islamic followers, along with the Islamic Antichrist and the Islamic Religious leader will all be cast into the Lake of Fire.
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04. This study reminds me of the Story of Babel, when people built a tower and were of one language, then God came down and put an end to their project. The Great Tribulation Period will be a process of putting an end to this one world type religious merger. Of course, most people will not accept this fact; but this new world religious merger will only be allowed to exist for a few years; as the Great Tribulation Period, with the Wrath of God from the Book of Revelation will put an end to this process; with the destruction of most of the population of the world and finally the complete and total burning of the Vatican City in Rome, Italy by the Volcanic Fire from the Volcanic Complex above the Subduction Zone, then the entire land will subside into Hades; and then being covered by the Mediterranean Sea. This will be the End of the Vatican City, as the leadership of this religious system will not be allowed to enter into the Millennial Reign of the Lord Jesus Christ.
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Here is where the Vatican City and it’s leadership will be going in the near future; including all the followers of Islam; the Devil; the Islamic Antichrist, who is the Islamic Leader of the Caliphate and the Islamic False Prophet; the masses of False Religions; the Atheists and every human being who is considered accountable to be able to make a decision about receiving the Lord Jesus Christ as their Savior; but will not put their Faith in the Blood Sacrifice of Christ alone. There future is under the crust of the earth, which is Hades or even further down, within the core of the earth and eventually they all will be cast into the Lake of Fire, which will probably be some form of energy, beyond the elements of the present earth or even the stars in the universe. At least you will not be concerned about Climate Change or Global Warming!!! Wow, I made a little joke!!!
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Revelation 14: [9] And the third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, If any man worship the beast and his image, and receive his mark in his forehead, or in his hand, [10] The same shall drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out without mixture into the cup of his indignation; and he shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels, and in the presence of the Lamb: [11] And the smoke of their torment ascendeth up for ever and ever: and they have no rest day nor night, who worship the beast and his image, and whosoever receiveth the mark of his name.
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Revelation 19: [20] And the beast was taken, and with him the false prophet that wrought miracles before him, with which he deceived them that had received the mark of the beast, and them that worshipped his image. These both were cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone.
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Revelation 20: [10] And the devil that deceived them was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, where the beast and the false prophet are, and shall be tormented day and night for ever and ever. [11] And I saw a great white throne, and him that sat on it, from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away; and there was found no place for them. [12] And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God; and the books were opened: and another book was opened, which is the book of life: and the dead were judged out of those things which were written in the books, according to their works. [13] And the sea gave up the dead which were in it; and death and hell delivered up the dead which were in them: and they were judged every man according to their works. [14] And death and hell were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death. [15] And whosoever was not found written in the book of life was cast into the lake of fire.
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Here is a preview of your future!!!
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01.   Earth Core
02.   Earth Mantle
03.   Earth Interior
04.   Earth Magma Core
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05.   Sun Core Temperature
06.   Sun Core Temperature Images
07.    Star Core Temperature
08.   Star Core Temperature Images
09.   Hottest Star Temperature
10.    Hottest Star Temperature Images
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An upper layer of the sun’s atmosphere called the photosphere has a temperature of about 10,000 degrees Fahrenheit. If one compares this temperature to the Earth’s core temperature, which is approximately 10,800 degrees Fahrenheit, one finds that the Earth’s core is hotter than this layer of the sun’s surface. However, the sun’s core temperature can be as high as 27 million degrees Fahrenheit. If one compares this to Earth’s core temperature of 10,800 degrees Fahrenheit, then the sun’s core temperature is much hotter than that of the Earth’s core. If one goes more in-depth into the universe, a helium flash in the core of Red Giant Stars; the temperature reaches 200 million Kelvin = 359,999,540 degrees Fahrenheit.
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Perhaps the hottest place is in the star core temperature that rises to over 100 billion degrees Fahrenheit as the iron atoms are crushed together, just before a star goes supernova, then turns into a black hole.
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Of course, these temperatures are estimated; but such places will not be a pleasant environment to exist in for eternity!!!
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Genesis 11: [1] And the whole earth was of one language, and of one speech.[2] And it came to pass, as they journeyed from the east, that they found a plain in the land of Shinar; and they dwelt there. [3] And they said one to another, Go to, let us make brick, and burn them throughly. And they had brick for stone, and slime had they for morter. [4] And they said, Go to, let us build us a city and a tower, whose top may reach unto heaven; and let us make us a name, lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth. [5] And the LORD came down to see the city and the tower, which the children of men builded. [6] And the LORD said, Behold, the people is one, and they have all one language; and this they begin to do: and now nothing will be restrained from them, which they have imagined to do. [7] Go to, let us go down, and there confound their language, that they may not understand one another’s speech. [8] So the LORD scattered them abroad from thence upon the face of all the earth: and they left off to build the city. [9] Therefore is the name of it called Babel; because the LORD did there confound the language of all the earth: and from thence did the LORD scatter them abroad upon the face of all the earth.
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05.  Here are some interesting links. I am not going to include all of the links here to the studies on this site, if you are interested enough, then take time to scroll down the page list and look them up or you can also use the Search Button at the top of the page for faster results.
A.    Abrahamic Family House from Wikipedia
B.    Abrahamic Family House on the Internet
C.    Abrahamic Family House in Images
D.   Chrislam
E.   Chrislam Movement and the Pope
F.    One World Religion Headquarters
G.    Pope Announces New World Religion
H.   One World Religion Headquarters to Open 2022
I.    Catholic Muslim Interfaith Council
J.   Chrislam One World Religion
K….
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A.   My study:  Roman Catholicism in the End Times
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May 26, 2022:
There will be a comet coming in the future; as it will be Trumpet 3 and Vial 3 of the Book of Revelation, as it will actually hit the earth’s atmosphere, melt and cause a massive meteor storm, with the chemical poisons being absorbed into the hydrological cycle possible over Eurasia. Here are some interesting links about the subject:
01.   Fire In The Sky! Comet SW3; May 24, 2022
02.   fragments-of-a-dying-comet
03.   shattered-comet-tau-herculids-meteor-shower
04.   dying-comet a good show
05.   tau-herculid-meteors-may-intense-shower
06.  crumbling-comet-could-create-new-meteor-shower
07…..
Some studies on my website:
01.   revelation-3rd-trumpet-and-3rd-vial
02.   science-in-revelation-part-12-comet
03.   seven-trumpets-of-revelation-3rd-trumpet
04.  seven-vials-of-revelation-3rd-vial
05.  wormwood-stinks-comets
06.   wormwood
07…….
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The general focus of this website is to provide Biblical, Astronomical, Geological and Meteorological; including Middle East Political events, related to the Islamic Caliphate that are forthcoming; with information about the Great Tribulation Period from the 7 Trumpets and 7 Vials of the Book of Revelation and the Parousia of the Lord Jesus Christ.
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There is sufficient study material on this website to serve as a guide towards understanding the Truthful Teaching of the Biblical Antichrist and his Islamic Caliphate in the Middle East Region; the Great Tribulation Period; the Seven Trumpets and Vials of the Book of Revelation; the 45+/- Days of the Wrath of God; the Rapture of the True Christian Believers, a.k.a. the Catching Out; the Parousia of the Lord Jesus Christ; and finally, some general information about the beginning of the Millennial Reign.
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Here are some interesting Videos about the Economy. This is important, as the economy worsens, this will cause the rise of the Biblical Antichrist in the Middle East Region and eventually the Mark, Name and Number of the Beast, 666; which will basically be a means of identification, mostly used in the Islamic Caliphate Empire for the food rations program.
01.    Mark, Name and Number of the Biblical Antichrist
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01.    Gravitas: US stocks lose $7 trillion in 2022; May 13, 2022
02.   Gravitas Plus: a Debt Storm is Coming; May 14, 2022
03……
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All of the Sermons are on both Websites:
01.     02 Sermons on BibleSermonsMP3.org
02.    03 Sermons on BibleSermonsMP3.com

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01.Video Link.   Mount Edgecumbe Volcano; Apr 14, 2022
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A Big Solar Storm may be coming in 2022:

01.Video Link.   Big Solar Storm Coming Soon? Mar 7, 2022

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Coronal Mass Ejections from the Sun. I believe eventually, these charged particles will hit the Earth in the Future; that will be so intense, they will penetrate through an opening in the Magnetic Shield, as it will be at a weaken state; then upon striking the Earth, will cause the three Earthquakes, with the 3rd being the Greatest Earthquake in Human History, as is mentioned in the Book of Revelation.

Page on Website:  01C Geomagnetic Storms

Page on Website:  01C Solar Activity

Page on WebsiteCosmic Lightning

01.Video Link.    Sun Erupts at Earth; Mar 10, 2022

02.Video Link.   Solar Eruption; Mar 11, 2022

03.Video Link.   Solar Flare; Mar 12, 2022

04.Video Link.   CME Impact; Mar 13, 2022

05.Video Link.   CME Impact; Mar 14, 2022

06.Video Link.  Many Solar Flares; Mar 28, 2022

07.Video Link.   7 Solar Flares; Mar 29, 2022

08.Video Link.   Solar Storm Approaching; Mar 30, 2022

09.Video Link.   X Class Solar Flare & CME; Mar 30, 2022

10.Video Link.    Strong Geomagnetic Storm in Progress; Apr 10, 2022

11……

There are a few verses in the Book of Revelation that have the word: lightning in the text.

It is possible, this Cosmic Lightning could occur and cause Earthquakes, which in turn cause Volcanic Eruptions, which have Volcanic Lightning!!!

Here are the Verses in Revelation. It starts with the Seven Trumpets and Ends with the Seven Vials of the Wrath of God.

1. Revelation 8:5: and there were voices, and thunderings, and lightnings, and an earthquake.

2. Revelation 11:19: and there were lightnings, and voices, and thunderings, and an earthquake, and great hail.

3. Revelation 16:18 & 21: And there were voices, and thunders, and lightnings; and there was a great earthquake, such as was not since men were upon the earth, so mighty an earthquake, and so great. [21] And there fell upon men a great hail out of heaven, every stone about the weight of a talent: and men blasphemed God because of the plague of the hail; for the plague thereof was exceeding great.

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Here is a brief statement of what I a referring to, with regards to Cosmic Lightning:  “For an hour on March 13th, a big crack opened in Earth’s magnetic field – one of the biggest in years (For specialists: BsubZ less than -20 nT),” Dr. Tony Phillips of SpaceWeather.com noted.“Solar wind poured through the gap, adding its energy to that of the CME which struck earlier in the day. This increases the chances that high-latitude auroras may remain visible at least through the early hours of March 14th.” What Dr. Phillips described took place from 21:33 to 22:36 UTC.  From:   Watchers.News/2022/03/13/CME Hits Earth

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Awesome Video; be sure to take time to Watch it…!!!

01.Video Link.  Asteroid Impacts; Mar 8, 2022

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